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the destruction of all microbes, including Bacteria, Viruses, and Endospores in or on an object - but NOT Prions


environment or procedure free of pathogens


use of Physical or Chemical Agents to destroy microorganisms, especially pathogens, on NONLIVING objects


use of Chemical Agents to destroy microorganisms on SKIN or MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the body


removing microbes from a surface by scrubbing (washing hands; preparing area of skin for an injection)


Which are milder; Antiseptics or Disinfectants?


the process of disinfecting public areas or utensils used in public place to reduce the number of pathogens to meet accepted Public Health Standards


use of heat to kill pathogens and most spoilage organisms in food and beverages without altering the quality of the food

Bacteriostatic, Fungistatic, Virustatic

Chemical or Physical Agents that inhibit metabolism and growth of Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses respectively, but do not necessarily kill or inactivate them

Bactericide, Fungicide, Virucide

agents that kill or permanently inactivate Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses, respectively


chemical agent that destroys pathogenic microbes in general

How Antimicrobial Agents kill microbes

By altering their cell walls or cytoplasmic membranes; or by interfering with their metabolism and reproduction by damaging proteins and nucleic acids

Cell wall

what maintains the integrity of the cell and ,when disrupted, cannot prevent the cell from bursting due to Osmotic Effects?

Cytoplasmic membrane

What, when damaged, causes cellular contents to leak out?

Viral Envelope

What is responsible for the attachment of the virus to a target cell?

Viral Replication

Damage to the Viral Envelope interrupts what?

Nonenveloped viruses

Which have a greater tolerance of harsh conditions; Enveloped Viruses or Nonenveloped Viruses?

its 3-D shape

What does protein function depend on?

Denature proteins

Extreme heat, or certain chemicals do what to proteins?

Chemicals, Radiation, and Heat

What 3 things can alter or destroy Nucleic Acids?

Chemicals, Radiation, and Heat altering or destroying Nucleic Acids

What can produce Fatal Mutations and can halt protein synthesis through action on RNA?

humans, animals, and objects

Agents used for Microbial Control should control all microbial growth while being harmless to ______, ______, and _______.

Factors affecting the efficacy of antimicrobial methods

Includes: The nature of the site to be treated, the degree of susceptibility of microbes involved, and environmental conditions that pertain

Harsh chemicals and extreme heat

When taking into consideration the site to be treated by antimicrobial methods, one must take into account the fact that ______ ________ and ________ _____ cannot be used on humans, animals, and fragile objects.

Enveloped viruses, Gram-positive bacteria, Nonenveloped viruses, Fungi, Gram-negative bacteria

Place these types of microorganisms in order from most susceptible to most resistant: Fungi, Gram-positive bacteria, enveloped viruses, Gram-negative bacteria, and nonenveloped viruses

Gram-negative bacteria, Active stage protozoa (trophozoites), Cysts of protozoa, Mycobacteria, Bacterial endospores

Place these types of microorganisms in order from most susceptible to most resistant: Mycobacteria, Active stage protozoa (trophozoites), Bacterial endospores, Gram-negative bacteria, and Cysts of Protozoa

High-level germicides

kill all pathogens, including Endospores

High-level germicides

used to sterilize invasive instruments (catheters, implants, and parts of heart-lung machines)

Intermediate-level germicides

kill Fungal Spores, Protozoan cysts, viruses and pathogenic bacteria

Intermediate-level germicides

used to disinfect noninvasive instruments in contact with mucous membranes (endoscopes and respiratory equipment)

Low-level germicides

kill vegetative bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, and some Viruses

Low-level germicides

used to disinfect objects only in contact with skin (electrodes and furniture)

Acidic conditions

What enhance antimicrobial effects of heat and some chemical disinfectants?

Sodium Hypochlorite

household chlorine bleach (example of acidic conditions enhancing antimicrobial effects of a chemical disinfectant)

body materials

What can reduce the effectiveness of heat, disinfectants, and some forms of radiation?

Phenol Coefficient, Use-dilution test, and In-use test

What are the 3 methods for evaluating disinfectants and antiseptics?

Phenol Coefficient

What test is used for evaluating the efficacy of disinfectants and antiseptics by determining the ratio of the agent's ability to control microbes to that of Phenol?

Use-dilution test

What test involves Metal cylinders being dipped into broth cultures of bacteria and dried, immersed into dilutions of disinfectants for 10 minutes, removed, washed, and placed into a tube of medium for 48 hours?


In the Use-dilution test, the most effective agent entirely prevents microbial growth at the _________ dilution.

In-Use test

What test involves swabs being taken from objects before and after the application of Disinfectant or Antiseptic and inoculated into growth medium, which is then monitored for microbial growth?

In-Use test

What test gives an accurate determination of the proper strength and application procedure for each specific situation?

Exposure to extremes of Heat, exposure to extremes of cold, desiccation, filtration, osmotic pressure, and radiation

What are the 6 physical methods of microbial control (in the order they are listed in our notes)?

Effects of high temperatures

Denaturation of proteins, interference with the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes and cell walls, and disruption of the structure and function of nucleic acids

Thermal Death Point

the lowest temperature that kills all cells in a broth in 10 minutes

Thermal Death Time

the time to sterilize a volume of liquid at a set temperature

Moist Heat

Used to disinfect, sanitize, and sterilize. Kills by denaturing proteins and destroying cytoplasmic membranes, and is more effective than dry heat.

Boiling, Autoclaving, Pasteurization, and Ultrahigh-Temperature Sterilization

What are the 4 methods of microbial control using moist heat?

Vegetative cells of bacteria and fungi, protozoan trophozoites, and most viruses within 10 minutes at sea level

What does Boiling kill?


Water boils at _________ temperatures at higher elevations.

Endospores, Protozoan cysts, and some viruses

What can survive boiling?


What method using moist heat uses pressure applied to boiling water, which prevents steam from escaping, allowing temperatures to rise exceed 100 degrees celcius at sea level?


Boiling temperature __________ as pressure increases.


what is the moist heat method used today for milk, ice cream, yogurt, and fruit juices that is NOT sterilization, because is allows Heat-tolerant (Thermoduric) and Heat-loving (Thermophilic) microbes to survive?

Thermoduric and Thermophilic microbes

What microbes are able to survive pasteurizatioin, do not cause spoilage prior to consumption, and are generally not pathogenic?

Batch Method, Flash Pasteurization, and Ultrahigh-Temperature Pasteurization

What are the 3 methods of pasteurization used on milk?

Batch method

What pasteurization method requires 30 minutes at 63 degrees Celcius?

Flash Pasteurization

What pasteurization method requires a temperature of 72 degrees celcius for 15 seconds (milk is run through heated tubes, effectively destroying all pathogens)?

Ultrahigh-temperature pasteurization

What pasteurization method requires a temperature of 134 degrees Celcius for 1 second?

Ultrahigh-Temperature Sterilization

What moist heat method involves exposing milk and other liquids to superheated steam at 140 degrees celcius for 1-3 seconds, then rapid cooling?

all living microbes

What does Ultrahigh-temperature sterilization kill?

room temperature

At what temperature can liquids treated with Ultrahigh-temperature sterilization be stored?

Dry heat

What is used for materials that cannot be sterilized with or are damaged by moist heat?

Denatures proteins and oxidizes metabolic and structural chemicals

What does dry heat do?

higher temperatures for longer time

What does dry heat require in comparison to moist heat?


ultimate means of sterilization

Decrease microbial metabolism, growth, and reproduction

What do refrigeration and freezing do?

Psychrophilic microbes

What kind of microbes can multiply in refrigerated foods?

halts growth

Refrigeration _____ ______ of most pathogens.

Slow freezing

Which is more effective; slow freezing or quick freezing?


________ inhibits growth due to the removal of water, only MICROBIOSTATIC.


instant freezing in liquid nitrogen; then exposure to vacuum for water removal-- used for long term preservation of microbial cultures


prevents the formation of damaging ice crystals


Cells in a __________ solution of salt or sugar lose water; cell desiccates


Which have a greater ability to survive Hypertonic environments; Bacteria or Fungi?

Shorter Wavelength Radiation

radiation that has more energy and greater penetration

effects on cellular chemicals

Radiation is Ionizing or Nonionizing according to their _____ __ ________ ________.


Which has shorter wavelength; Ionizing or nonionizing?


Which has longer wavelength; Ionizing or nonionizing?

Ionizing radiation

wavelengths shorter than 1 nm, and includes Electron beams, Gamma Rays, and X Rays

Ionizing radiation

eject electrons from atoms to create Ions


disrupt Hydrogen bonding, Oxidize double covalent bonds, and create Hydroxide Ions; Hydroxide ions denature other molecules (DNA)

Electron beams

form of radiation effective at killing, but do not penetrate well

Electron beams

used to sterilize spices, meats, microbiological plastic ware, and medical and dental supplies

Gamma Rays

form of radiation that penetrate well, but require hours to kill microbes

Gamma Rays

used to sterilize meats, spices, and fresh fruits and vegetables

X Rays

form of radiation that require too much time to be practical for growth control

Nonionizing radiation

excites electrons and causes them to make new covalent bonds, which affects the 3-D structure of Proteins and Nucleic acids

UV light

causes the formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA and does not penetrate well

UV light

suitable for disinfecting air, transparent fluids, and surfaces of objects

Chemical methods of microbial control

affect microbes' cell walls, cytoplasmic membranes, proteins, or DNA

temperature, length of exposure, the amount of organic matter, pH, concentration, and the age of the chemical

The effect of chemical methods of microbial growth varies with what?

Chemical methods of microbial control

tend to be more effective against enveloped viruses and vegetative cells of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa

Phenols, Alcohols, Halogens, Oxidizing Agents, Surfactants, Heavy Metals, Aldehydes, Gaseous Agents, and Antimicrobics

What are the 9 major categories of chemical methods of microbial control (in the order their listed in the notes)?

Intermediate to Low-Level Disinfectants

What are level are Phenol and Phenolics?

Denature Proteins and disrupt Cell membranes

What do Phenol and Phenolics do to cells?

Phenol and Phenolics

effective in the presence of organic matter and remain active for a prolonged time

health care settings, labs, and homes

Where are Phenol and Phenolics commonly used?

Intermediate-Level Disinfectants

What level are Alcohols?

Denature proteins and disrupt Cell membranes

What do Alcohols do to cells?

Intermediate-Level Antimicrobial Chemicals

What level are Halogens?


Believed that they damage Enzymes via Oxidation or by Denaturing them

Oxidizing Agents

Peroxides, Ozone, and Peracetic Acid

Peroxides, Ozone, and Peracetic Acid

Oxidizing agents that kill by oxidation of microbial Enzymes

High-Level Disinfectants and Antiseptics

What level are Oxidizing Agents?

Hydrogen Peroxide

Oxidizing agent that can disinfect and sterilize surfaces of objects


neutralizes, but is not useful for treating open wounds


Oxidizing agent for the treatment of drinking water

Peracetic Acid

effective Sporocide used to sterilize equipment--since it's not adversely affected by organic contaminants and leaves no toxic residue


"Surface active" chemicals that reduce Surface Tension of solvents to make them more effective at dissolving solutes


Have Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic ends; good Degerming agents, but not Antimicrobial


positively charged Organic Surfactants, and more soluble in water than soaps


colorless, tasteless, harmless to humans, and Antimicrobial; ideal for many medical and industrial applications

Low-Level Disinfectants

What level are Quats?


are Antimicrobial because they alter the 3-D shape of Proteins, inhibiting or eliminating their function

Heavy Metals

Low-Level Bacteristatic and Fungistatic Agents

1% Silver Nitrate

What is used to prevent blindness caused by N. gonorrhoeae?


Heavy metal used to preserve vaccines


Heavy metal which controls algal growth in reservoirs, fish tanks, swimming pools, and water storage tanks; interferes with chlorophyll


Compounds containing terminal -CHO groups


Cross-link with Amino, Hydroxyl, Sulfhydryl, and Carboxyl groups to denature Proteins and inactivate Nucleic Acids


both disinfects (with short exposure) and sterilized (with long exposure)


used in embalming and disinfection of rooms and instruments

Ethylene Oxide, Propylene Oxide, and Beta-Propiolactone

What are 3 Gaseous Agents that are used in closed chambers to sterilize items?

Gaseous Agents

Denature Proteins and DNA by cross-linking Functional Groups

Gaseous Agents

used in hospitals and dental offices

Gaseous Agents

Can be hazardous to people, often highly explosive, extremely poisonous, and are potentially Carcinogenic


Include Antibiotics, semisynthetic, and synthetic chemicals

treatment of disease

What are Antimicrobials typically used for?


other than for the treatment of diseases, some of these are used for antimicrobial control outside the body

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