the destruction of all microbes, including Bacteria, Viruses, and Endospores in or on an object - but NOT Prions
use of Physical or Chemical Agents to destroy microorganisms, especially pathogens, on NONLIVING objects
removing microbes from a surface by scrubbing (washing hands; preparing area of skin for an injection)
the process of disinfecting public areas or utensils used in public place to reduce the number of pathogens to meet accepted Public Health Standards
use of heat to kill pathogens and most spoilage organisms in food and beverages without altering the quality of the food
Bacteriostatic, Fungistatic, Virustatic
Chemical or Physical Agents that inhibit metabolism and growth of Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses respectively, but do not necessarily kill or inactivate them
Bactericide, Fungicide, Virucide
agents that kill or permanently inactivate Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses, respectively
How Antimicrobial Agents kill microbes
By altering their cell walls or cytoplasmic membranes; or by interfering with their metabolism and reproduction by damaging proteins and nucleic acids
what maintains the integrity of the cell and ,when disrupted, cannot prevent the cell from bursting due to Osmotic Effects?
Which have a greater tolerance of harsh conditions; Enveloped Viruses or Nonenveloped Viruses?
Chemicals, Radiation, and Heat altering or destroying Nucleic Acids
What can produce Fatal Mutations and can halt protein synthesis through action on RNA?
humans, animals, and objects
Agents used for Microbial Control should control all microbial growth while being harmless to ______, ______, and _______.
Factors affecting the efficacy of antimicrobial methods
Includes: The nature of the site to be treated, the degree of susceptibility of microbes involved, and environmental conditions that pertain
Harsh chemicals and extreme heat
When taking into consideration the site to be treated by antimicrobial methods, one must take into account the fact that ______ ________ and ________ _____ cannot be used on humans, animals, and fragile objects.
Enveloped viruses, Gram-positive bacteria, Nonenveloped viruses, Fungi, Gram-negative bacteria
Place these types of microorganisms in order from most susceptible to most resistant: Fungi, Gram-positive bacteria, enveloped viruses, Gram-negative bacteria, and nonenveloped viruses
Gram-negative bacteria, Active stage protozoa (trophozoites), Cysts of protozoa, Mycobacteria, Bacterial endospores
Place these types of microorganisms in order from most susceptible to most resistant: Mycobacteria, Active stage protozoa (trophozoites), Bacterial endospores, Gram-negative bacteria, and Cysts of Protozoa
used to sterilize invasive instruments (catheters, implants, and parts of heart-lung machines)
used to disinfect noninvasive instruments in contact with mucous membranes (endoscopes and respiratory equipment)
household chlorine bleach (example of acidic conditions enhancing antimicrobial effects of a chemical disinfectant)
What can reduce the effectiveness of heat, disinfectants, and some forms of radiation?
Phenol Coefficient, Use-dilution test, and In-use test
What are the 3 methods for evaluating disinfectants and antiseptics?
What test is used for evaluating the efficacy of disinfectants and antiseptics by determining the ratio of the agent's ability to control microbes to that of Phenol?
What test involves Metal cylinders being dipped into broth cultures of bacteria and dried, immersed into dilutions of disinfectants for 10 minutes, removed, washed, and placed into a tube of medium for 48 hours?
In the Use-dilution test, the most effective agent entirely prevents microbial growth at the _________ dilution.
What test involves swabs being taken from objects before and after the application of Disinfectant or Antiseptic and inoculated into growth medium, which is then monitored for microbial growth?
What test gives an accurate determination of the proper strength and application procedure for each specific situation?
Exposure to extremes of Heat, exposure to extremes of cold, desiccation, filtration, osmotic pressure, and radiation
What are the 6 physical methods of microbial control (in the order they are listed in our notes)?
Effects of high temperatures
Denaturation of proteins, interference with the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes and cell walls, and disruption of the structure and function of nucleic acids
Used to disinfect, sanitize, and sterilize. Kills by denaturing proteins and destroying cytoplasmic membranes, and is more effective than dry heat.
Boiling, Autoclaving, Pasteurization, and Ultrahigh-Temperature Sterilization
What are the 4 methods of microbial control using moist heat?
Vegetative cells of bacteria and fungi, protozoan trophozoites, and most viruses within 10 minutes at sea level
What does Boiling kill?
What method using moist heat uses pressure applied to boiling water, which prevents steam from escaping, allowing temperatures to rise exceed 100 degrees celcius at sea level?
what is the moist heat method used today for milk, ice cream, yogurt, and fruit juices that is NOT sterilization, because is allows Heat-tolerant (Thermoduric) and Heat-loving (Thermophilic) microbes to survive?
Thermoduric and Thermophilic microbes
What microbes are able to survive pasteurizatioin, do not cause spoilage prior to consumption, and are generally not pathogenic?
Batch Method, Flash Pasteurization, and Ultrahigh-Temperature Pasteurization
What are the 3 methods of pasteurization used on milk?
What pasteurization method requires a temperature of 72 degrees celcius for 15 seconds (milk is run through heated tubes, effectively destroying all pathogens)?
What pasteurization method requires a temperature of 134 degrees Celcius for 1 second?
What moist heat method involves exposing milk and other liquids to superheated steam at 140 degrees celcius for 1-3 seconds, then rapid cooling?
At what temperature can liquids treated with Ultrahigh-temperature sterilization be stored?
instant freezing in liquid nitrogen; then exposure to vacuum for water removal-- used for long term preservation of microbial cultures
effects on cellular chemicals
Radiation is Ionizing or Nonionizing according to their _____ __ ________ ________.
wavelengths shorter than 1 nm, and includes Electron beams, Gamma Rays, and X Rays
disrupt Hydrogen bonding, Oxidize double covalent bonds, and create Hydroxide Ions; Hydroxide ions denature other molecules (DNA)
used to sterilize spices, meats, microbiological plastic ware, and medical and dental supplies
excites electrons and causes them to make new covalent bonds, which affects the 3-D structure of Proteins and Nucleic acids
Chemical methods of microbial control
affect microbes' cell walls, cytoplasmic membranes, proteins, or DNA
temperature, length of exposure, the amount of organic matter, pH, concentration, and the age of the chemical
The effect of chemical methods of microbial growth varies with what?
Chemical methods of microbial control
tend to be more effective against enveloped viruses and vegetative cells of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
Phenols, Alcohols, Halogens, Oxidizing Agents, Surfactants, Heavy Metals, Aldehydes, Gaseous Agents, and Antimicrobics
What are the 9 major categories of chemical methods of microbial control (in the order their listed in the notes)?
Phenol and Phenolics
effective in the presence of organic matter and remain active for a prolonged time
effective Sporocide used to sterilize equipment--since it's not adversely affected by organic contaminants and leaves no toxic residue
"Surface active" chemicals that reduce Surface Tension of solvents to make them more effective at dissolving solutes
colorless, tasteless, harmless to humans, and Antimicrobial; ideal for many medical and industrial applications
are Antimicrobial because they alter the 3-D shape of Proteins, inhibiting or eliminating their function
Heavy metal which controls algal growth in reservoirs, fish tanks, swimming pools, and water storage tanks; interferes with chlorophyll
Cross-link with Amino, Hydroxyl, Sulfhydryl, and Carboxyl groups to denature Proteins and inactivate Nucleic Acids
Ethylene Oxide, Propylene Oxide, and Beta-Propiolactone
What are 3 Gaseous Agents that are used in closed chambers to sterilize items?
Can be hazardous to people, often highly explosive, extremely poisonous, and are potentially Carcinogenic