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35 terms

AHS APUSH STUDY GUIDE

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Washington's Cabinet
Henry Knox (Secretary of War/Defense; Thomas Jefferson (Sec. of State); Alexander Hamilton (Sec. of Treasury); Edmund Randolph (Attorney General)
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.
John Marshall's Court
Period of court ruling from 1801 to 1835; shaped interpretation of Constitution (loose); strengthened judicial branch; increased power of federal government over state; support of economic activity
Embargo Act
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Tallmadge Amendment
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
John Q. Adams
The sixth president of the United States, who was not well-liked by citizens and accused of making a corrupt bargain to win the election. He mainly focused on the economy during his presidency.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Clay's American System
Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
Corrupt Bargain
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of 1828
a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products.
Nullification
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
Eli Whitney
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Dorthea Dix
dedicated to improving conditions for the mentally ill. led movement to build new mental hospitals and improve existing ones
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River.
Burned Over District
area of New York State along the Erie Canal that was constantly aflame with revivalism and reform; as wave after wave of fervor broke over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents.
Know-Nothings
the American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic
Liberty Party
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Free-Soil Party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Mormons
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
Perfectionists
Lived in a Utopian community started by John Humphrey Noyes. They believed in true conversion, perfection, and the release of sin. The people of the community were all married to each other. They all shared the same children. Other people outside the community saw it as polygamy, which caused problems. In 1879 they were charged for adultery, and that was end of complex marriages.
Horace Mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Catherine Beecher
Urged women to seek employment as teachers, housekeepers
Daniel Webster
Senator who, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Margret Fuller
transcendentalists, writer, female; helped redefine gender roles
Henry David Thoreau
wrote "Civil Disobedience;" American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean
54 40 or Fight
In the election of 1844, Polk used this as a campaign slogan, implying that the he would declare war if Britain did not give the United States all the Oregon territory up to its northern boundary.
Mexican-American War
1846 - 1848 - President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
Oregon Territory
territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada; land claimed by both U.S. and Britain and held jointly under the Convention of 1818
Gadsen Purchase
strip of land in present day Arizona and New Mexico for which the United States paid Mexico $10 million in 1853.
Spot Resolutions
Congressman Abraham Lincoln (Spotty Lincoln) supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
Southern Slavery
large plantations; either house servants(envied, better clothes, raped, not in sun, no intera. w/ others) or field hands (in sun all day, women took home of family after working)
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War