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because of the tremendous pressure gradient associated with a strong tornado, maximum winds approach ___ mph
relatively narrow, elongated bands of thunderstorms that develop in the warm sector of a mid-lat. cyclone
leads to greater instability
why is strong heating of the ground by the Sun associated with t-storms?
atmosphere is most unstable at that time
why are thunderstorms most likely to occur in the afternoon and early evening?
more latent heat is available as energy
why is very humid air near the surface a necessary ingredient for severe thunderstorms?
if you see lightning and then hear associated thunder 15 sec later, the lightning flash was about ___ mi away.
when occurring in the Atlantic Ocean, they are known as hurricanes; what are they known as when occurring in the western Pacific?
what is the single greatest advancement in tools used for observing cyclones?
an announcement aimed at specific coastal areas that a hurricane poses a possible threat generally within 36 hrs is called a ____.
hurricanes develop most often in the late summer when ocean waters have reached what temperature?
trade wind inversion
what circumstance may inhibit further development of a hurricane by diminishing air's ability to rise and thus inhibit development of strong t-storms?
prevailing winds are from the east
why do hurricanes in the Atlantic move toward the west during early stages?
friction and lack of warm, moist air
when a hurricane moves onto land, it declines in intensity; what factor(s) contribute to this loss of punch?
during what time of year should hurricane formation in the North Atlantic be at a peak?
as a strong hurricane moves ashore, what causes the most devastating damage in the coastal zone?
to officially be a hurricane, the disturbance must have rotary circulation and have wind speeds of at least ___ km/hr
tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane
proper order of storm intensity in terms of increasing wind speed
which country has historically proven most susceptible to large losses of life from storm surge in the 20th century?
National Weather Service
in the U.S., the governmental agency responsible for gathering and disseminating weather-related information is the ______.
Washington D.C., Moscow, and Melbourne
3 World Meteorological Centers that compile data and send it to participating countries if the World Meteorological Organization are located near
technique used to attempt to match current conditions with similar well-established patterns from the past
determining the occurrence of precipitation, the NWS forecasts are correct more than ___% of the time
these satellites were placed in orbit over the equator and remain fixed over a point on Earth because they keep pace with the earth's rate of rotation
these satellites circle the earth in a N to S direction & obtain images of the entire Earth twice a day by drifting about 15° westward over the earth's surface during each orbit
infrared images provide a way to determine which type of clouds of more probable
west to east
when upper-air flow produces large amplitude waves and a general ____ flow, mild temperatures and few cyclonic disturbances are experienced south of the jet stream
north to south
when upper-air flow produces large amplitude waves and a general ____ flow, cold air moves southward and cyclonic activity dominates
a weather map shows the status of the atmosphere and includes data on temperature, humidity, airflow, and ____.
strongly influences development of surface storms
why is the pattern of upper-level winds an important part of the forecasting process?
their orbital motion matches the earth's rotation
why are some satellites describes as being stationary?
what weather data is not always plotted in the same location with respect to the weather station?
category of air pollutants is emitted directly from identifiable sources and pollutes the air immediately upon being emitted
general term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in air
important sources of ___ include power plants, smelters, petroleum refineries, and pulp and paper mills
volatile organic compounds
encompasses a wide array of solid, liquid and gaseous substances that are composed exclusively of hydrogen and carbon
exposure to this primary pollutant is associated with damage to the nervous systems of young children
many reactions that produce secondary pollutants are triggered by ____ and are called photochemical reactions
although ___ forms naturaly in the stratosphere, when produced near the surface, it is considered a pollutant with many negative effects
the Environmental Protection Agency
in the 1970s, the federal Clean Air Act made major strides in reducing air pollution and created
particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, lead and ozone
6 pollutants that are known as criteria pollutants and are covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
strong and variable (gusty)
spreading or dilution of pollutants into the atmosphere is best when winds are
a near total lack of mixing
inversions represent a hazardous meteorological condition with respect to air pollution because they always bring
spread out horizontally but not mix up or down
smoke released from a stack into a very subtle air mass would tend to
determine the amount of dilution
meteorological conditions are important in air pollution episodes since they
dispersion of pollutant material into the atmosphere depends on the wind and ___ of the air layer
reduce solar energy at Earth's surface
volcanic eruptions can act as agents for climate change because they
most likely explanation for evidence of glacial activity in places such as Africa and Australia
drought in the western U.S.
extensive tree ring research indicates that 22 yr sunspot cycle may be related to
higher evaporation rates and decreased rainfall in some areas
possible consequences of a CO2 induced climate change
mountain ranges play an important role in determining climates because of their influence upon
whether evaporation exceeds precipitation
primary factor which determines whether a place will have a dry climate is
four of the five major climatic groups have temperature characteristics as their basis... which does not?
migration of the ITCZ
most important factor controlling the seasonal distribution of precipitation in the Aw (tropical wet and dry) realm
low temperatures mean only small loss to evaporation
although subarctic and tundra climates generally have small precipitation totals, they are considered humid. why?
in humid continental climate, shifts in wind directions sometimes cause rapid and large temperature changes. during what season would this be most pronounced?
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