An international movement originating in the establishment of a Jewish national or religious community in Palestine and later for the support of modern Israel
A major division in the action of a play. The ends of acts are typically indicated by lowering the curtain or turning up the houselights. Playwrights frequently employ acts to accommodate changes in time, setting, characters onstage, or mood. In many full-length plays, acts are further divided into scenes, which often mark a point in the action when the location changes or when a new character enters.
A brief reference to a person, place, thing, event, or idea in history or literature. Allusions conjure up biblical authority, scenes from Shakespeare's plays, historic figures, wars, great love stories, and anything else that might enrich an author's work. Allusions imply reading and cultural experiences shared by the writer and reader, functioning as a kind of shorthand whereby the recalling of something outside the work supplies an emotional or intellectual context.
The character, force, or collection of forces in fiction or drama that opposes the protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the story.
In drama, a speech directed to the audience that supposedly is not audible to the other characters onstage at the time.
A work intended to interest, involve, and amuse the reader or audience, in which no terrible disaster occurs and that ends happily for the main characters.
A characteristic of a literary genre (often unrealistic) that is understood and accepted by audiences because it has come, through usage and time, to be recognized as a familiar technique. For example, the division of a play into acts and scenes is a dramatic convention, as are soliloquies and asides. flashbacks and foreshadowing are examples of literary conventions.
A turning point in the action of a story that has a powerful effect on the protagonist. Opposing forces come together decisively to lead to the climax of the plot. See also plot.
A type of informational diction. Dialects are spoken by definable groups of people from a particular geographic region, economic group, or social class. Writers use dialect to contrast and express differences in educational, class, social, and regional backgrounds of their characters. See also diction.
Derived from the Greek word dram, meaning "to do" or "to perform," the term drama may refer to a single play, a group of plays ("Jacobean drama"), or to all plays ("world drama"). Drama is designed for performance in a theater; actors take on the roles of characters, perform indicated actions, and speak the dialogue written in the script. Play is a general term for a work of dramatic literature, and a playwright is a writer who makes plays.
creates a discrepancy between what a character believes or says and what the reader or audience member knows to be true.
In fiction, when a character suddenly experiences a deep realization about himself or herself; a truth which is grasped in an ordinary rather than a melodramatic moment.
A character in a work whose behavior and values contrast with those of another character in order to highlight the distinctive temperament of that character (usually the protagonist).
The introduction early in a story of verbal and dramatic hints that suggest what is to come later.
The main character of a narrative; its central character who engages the reader's interest and empathy.
In drama, a scene is a subdivision of an act. In modern plays, scenes usually consist of units of action in which there are no changes in the setting or breaks in the continuity of time. According to traditional conventions, a scene changes when the location of the action shifts or when a new character enters.
The written text of a play, which includes the dialogue between characters, stage directions, and often other expository information.
A dramatic convention by means of which a character, alone onstage, utters his or her thoughts aloud. Playwrights use soliloquies as a convenient way to inform the audience about a character's motivations and state of mind.
A playwright's written instructions about how the actors are to move and behave in a play. They explain in which direction characters should move, what facial expressions they should assume, and so on.
A story that presents courageous individuals who confront powerful forces within or outside themselves with a dignity that reveals the breadth and depth of the human spirit in the face of failure, defeat, and even death. Tragedies recount an individual's downfall; they usually begin high and end low.
A representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms - Characters represent abstractions and have symbolic purpose.
A passing or casual reference usually to a literary, biblical, or historical event - a mention of something either directly or by implication
When characters contrast with each other via opposing traits - this brings out the traits in each
The use of details and descriptors to create a mental image in a reader's mind - it usually involves at least one of the senses. It must be figurative (not literal) speech.
A clever literary device that uses words to express something other than the literal meaning, usually the opposite (three main categories)
Used typically in comedies and tragedies to engage the audience as they know what is happening and the characters remain ignorant.
Giving human traits to something that is not living such as objects, colors, or ideas
A paradox is a contradictory statement that makes no logical sense at first glance until you re-read it and think about it
A scene in which the author describes an event that occurred before the work, usually to clarify the present situation
The repetition of a vowel sound within a sentence to create rhyming within a sentence or phrase
the central character of a story who serves as a focus for its themes and incidents and as the primary rationale for plot development
an un-heroic protagonist who frequently is unable to commit to ideas. Anti-heros feel helpless in a world where they have no control. May celebrate their position as a social outcast
shows what character is like by describing looks, what they say/do, and how characters react to that character
central message expressed through literary work
abstract concept presented through images, characters and symbols