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You are looking at staphylococcal aureus under a microscope. Which of the following characteristics will not be present?

Monotrichous flagella

You have isolated a strain of Staphylococcus from the skin of a physician in a local hospital. Each of the following characteristics listed are present. Which of the following characteristics is a likely indicator of virulence?

Production of coagulase enzyme

Which of the following explains why Staphylococcus aureus is so durable?

It is able to withstand high osmotic pressure
It is able to survive in low moisture environments
It is able to develop resistance to antibiotics easily
It is a facultative anaerobe

What is the best treatment against Staphylococcus impetigo?

Washing of hands

A test tube filled with nutrient agar has been inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. This was done by deeply stabbing the agar with a needle covered in bacteria. After incubation indoors you notice that bacterial growth has occurred both at the surface of the agar as well as deep within it, indicative of which metabolic process.

Fermentation and Aerobic repiration

Trichophyton ringworm causes damage to the host by:

Breaking down keratin in metabolic process

The fungus causing ringworm is spread by:

All of the above

Treatment of trichophyton ringworm is:

selective by targeting membrane components and metabolic process

ringworm and athlete's foot are caused by the same pathogen.


Ascomycota, the phylum from which Trichophyton is derived, is classified as all of the following, except:

dimorphic fungi

Viral meningitis is more severe than bacterial meningitis.


What is one factor that makes meningococcal meningitis difficult to fight off?

There are many different strains/serogroups

Which of the following causes meningitis to be such a severe disease?

Inflammation of the meninges causing pressure on the brain

It is possible to be a host for meningitis without exhibiting any of the harmful symptoms


A patient walks into a doctor's office and is suspected to have meningitis. Which of the following is NOT a symptom that would lead to this suspicion?

Bloody nose

When should you take antiviral medication for best results?

Within first 30 hours of infection

What is the receptor that the influenza virus will attach to?


Which of the following statements is false?

Influenza C causes pandemics

It is easier to be infected by animal transmission than human to human transmission.


Which of the following describes the general influenza trend?

most cases between November and February

Why is hospitalization important for those diagnosed with botulism?

Botulism often causes paralysis which can be very dangerous and impair or stop breathing altogether. It is important to be under close medical supervision to reacto to serious complications associated with the toxin.

Cases of botulism tend to happen with single, unrelated cases.


What is/are the portal of entry/entries for botulism?

Skin & Gastrointestinal tract

How many types of botulism have been recognized?


Clostridium Botulinum are anaerobic, gram positivie, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium.


Which is NOT a stage of Lyme disease?

Initial Lyme disease

What is the treatment for Lyme disease?


Where is Lyme disease MOST prevalent in the U.S.?


A patient has stiff joints, headaches, and a bulls-eye rash. What disease does he appear to have contracted?


The bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi that causes Lyme disease is shaped like


People with latent TB can transmit the infection to others.


What type of bacteria is M. Tuberulosis?

Acid fast & Gram positive

Who discovered M. Tuberculosis?

Robert Koch

How is TB most easily transmitted?

Droplet transmission

All of the following are false EXCEPT:

Tuberculosis can become a systemic infection

Which type of infection is strep throat?


Which of the following is most important in the prevention of getting strep throat?

Wash your hands often

Which of the following people would you assume would be more likely seen with strep throat?

10 year old Sarah, who enjoys reading and hanging out with her friends.

12 year old Bobby came home from school complaining of a sore throat. Later that night, he refused to eat dinner, stating he wasn't hungry and he had a headache. The next day, his mom took him to the doctor's, and the doctor diagnosed Bobby with strep throat. Which of the following is NOT a complication that could arise if his strep throat went untreated?


Streptococcus pyrogenes, which causes strept throat, is successful as a pathogen because it contains antigens similar to those of human cardio, skeletal, and smooth muscle which results in molecular mimicry and a tolerant or suppressed immune response by the host.


How is cryptosporidiosis detected?

Acid-fast stain

TLR4 is essential for eradication of crypto


Which characteristic makes crypto an unusual eukaryote?

No mitochondrial DNA

Cryptosporidiosis is usually fatal to the host it infects.

b. False

All of the following are true about cryptosporidiosis EXCEPT:

Two of the above

Which Plasmodium parasite most commonly causes malaria?

Plasmodium Falciparum

How does the Plasmodium parasite invade erythrocytes?

Apicomplexan Organelles

Where does the Plasmodium sporozoite undergo cell division in the human?


What type of transmission spreads malaria?

Vector Transmission

Which is the preferred anti-malarial treatment drug?


Which disease has no known cure, no known route of transmission, and no immunizations are available?

Common cold

Which of the following are examples of non-enveloped viruses?


How many colds a year does the average American contract?


Where was the rhinovirus discovered?

United Kingdom

Rhinovirus is the direct cause of which symptom?

Sore Throat

Antibiotic treatment is the best way to get rid of E. Coli O15


How can you prevent E. Coli O157 exposure?

All of the above

What is the outcome of Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS)?

Kidney failure

What toxin is the cause of infection in E. coli O157?

Shiga toxin

Epidemiologists classify the E. coli O157 strain as a(n)


Helicobacter pylori breaks down which organic compound to ammonia and bicarbonate in order to create a more neutral pH environment to survive in.


Which list of characteristics most accurately describes H. Pylori?

Helix or spiral shaped, flagella, gram negative, peptic ulcers, microaerophilic

NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are an effective way to treat infections resulting from Heliobacter Pylori.


Which ratio best describes the world population that is infected with H. Pylori.

50% are infected but most are asymptomatic

A carbon urea breath test is a method for diagnosing an H. Pylori infection.


Which of these is NOT a role that Streptococcus mutans has in dental caries?

S. mutans replicates at an extremely high rate in the presence of glucose alone, but less rapidly in the presence of sucrose alone

Which sugar is most cariogenic?


If you had periodontal disease, what would be the best course of action?

Go see your Periodontist

When is it most damaging to eat sugars?

Between meals.

What percentage of adults have had at least one cavity?


Jason took a trip to see some family in Arizona about a month ago. He has felt like he had the flu for about a week, but now he is developing some sensitive nodes on his legs. Jason most likely has developed which form of Coccidioidomycosis


During which conditions would you be most likely to get Coccidiodomycosis?

Dry windy conditions

Coccidioidomycosis is caused by which of the following pathogens?

C. Immitus

Which of the following is a recommended treatment for fungal coccidioidomycosis?

Azole drugs

Coccidioidomycosis is considered

An endemic

The papillomavirus is part of the...

papovaviridae family and is a double-stranded DNA virus

All strains of the papillomavirus cause either genital warts or cancer


Which of the following is NOT a common symptom of an HPV infection?

Erectile Dysfunction

What is the most common method of transmission of the Human Papillomavirus?

Genital contact

What system of the body does HPV first attack?


A young, sexual active woman reports to her physician that she has noticed a few suspicious warts on her genital area within the past few weeks. She is concerned that it will cause damage elsewhere in her body, wonders how she contracted them, and what are some possible treatments. Which one of the following statement(s) by the doctor is FALSE?

A and D

Which variant of the plague infects the lymph system?

Bubonic plague

What is the most common source of infection in the USA?

Oropsylla montana

The bacteria that causes the plague is

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia Pestis' best defense against the host cell is

effector Yops that inhibit phagocytosis

What antibiotic would be prescribed if the patient has plague meningitis?


Which of the following is not a typical risk factor for E. coli UTIs?

being male

Which of the following is the most common cause of nosocomial infection?

urinary tract infection

Women are often advised to drink cranberry juice to prevent UTIs from occurring. What do cranberries contain that act as a barrier to infection?

B and D

What factor(s) lead to a higher frequency of the disease in women?

Both B and C

The most common bacteria associated with urinary tract infections is E. coli.


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