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18 terms

Mendelian Genetics and Pedigrees

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Gregor Mendel
Father of genetics. Experimented with pea plants and discovered law of dominance
Punnett Square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
Cross
To breed two individuals
Trait
Specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
Heritable trait
Trait that is passed from parent to offspring
Alleles
The different forms of a gene.
Dominant
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
Recessive
trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
Genotype
The particular alleles at present in an organism
Phenotype
Physical characteristics
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait
for example: HH or hh
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a trait
for example: Hh
Complete Dominance
A relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another
Incomplete Dominance
creates a BLENDED phenotype; one allele is not completely dominant over the other
Co-Dominance
creates a phenotype in which BOTH alleles for a gene are fully expressed.
Pedigree
Diagram that shows the occurrence of a HERITABLE TRAIT in several generations of a family
Male
Represented by squares in a pedigree.
Female
Represented by circles in a pedigree.