Myers' Psychology for AP: Unit 1
Important figures and key terms
Terms in this set (39)
Socrates and Plato
Ancient Greek philosophers that concluded that the mind is separable from the body and continues after the body dies, and that knowledge is innate - born within us.
Had a love of data and derived principles from careful observations. He said that knowledge is not preexisting, instead it grows from the experiences stored in our memories.
French scientist and philosoper who agreed with Socrates and Plato about the existence of innate ideas and mind's being "entirely distinct from the body" and able to survive death. He dissected animals and concluded that the fluid in the brain's cavities contained "animal spirits". These spirits, he surmised, flowed from the brain through what we call the nerves to the muscles, provoking movement. Memories formed as experiences opened pores in the brain into which the animal spirits also flowed.
One of the founders of modern science. His ideas helped form modern empiricism with John Locke.
British political philosopher who wrote "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding". His ideas helped form modern empiricism with Francis Bacon
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on experimentation and observation.
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind. Introduced by William Wundt's student, Edward Titchener.
Self-reflection, looking inward. Proved to be somewhat unreliable, its result varying from person to person and experience to experience.
philosopher-psychologist who thought it was more fruitful to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings. He assumed that thinking, like smelling, developed because it was adaptive. When not plagued by ill health or depression, he was an impish, outgoing, and joyous young man. Harvard teacher and writer.
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish. Encourages explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness.
James, legendary teacher-writer, mentored her, who became a pioneering memory researcher and first women to be president of the American Psychological Association. Harvard denied her a degree for being a woman.
Margaret Floy Washburn
The first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D. Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind. Second female APA president.
The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.
Rooted in observation. The view that psychology should 1: be an objective science that 2: studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential for healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
The science of behavior and mental processes
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social cultural levels of analysis
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
the scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.