AP Environmental Science Unit 1 - Geology
salt contamination of water or soils. This can occur due to erosion, or irrigation of desert soils (due to high evaporation rate)
cleaning up polluted soils by the use of plants absorption of contaminants.
cleaning up polluted soils by the use of bacteria eating of contaminants.
an upward fold in the rock profile
warm water rising to the surface
law of fossil succession
the fossil below is older than the fossil above
A technique used to determine which of two fossils is older
Name for the time in earths early history that accounts for ninety percent of earth's time, but only cellular organisms lived.
570 - 230 mya, characterized by the advent of fish, insects, and reptiles; ended with the largest mass extinction in history
245- 144 mya. Age of Reptiles (Dinosaurs)
65 mya -present - Age of Mammals
law of original horizontality
sedimentary and lava flows creating new lithosphere occurred in horizontal layers
law of superposition
the layer of rock below is older than the layer above
Earth's history organized into four eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
Fossils can only be formed in
Occurs in liquids and gases where particles are further apart, particles move rather than vibrate whilst hot particles rise and cold air falls
Rich, fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt.
0.002 and 0.05 mm, medium type of soil
less than 0.002 mm, smallest type of soil, high surface area, useful for soil retention (ability of soil to hold onto water long enough for roots to access water)
0.06mm to 2.0mm, biggest type of soil, high porosity, useful for aeration to roots
topsoil, rich in organic matter, where plant roots are.
any substance that is made of living things or the remains of living things.
Frequently the second major soil horizon, composed primarily of mineral and leached material with very little organic matter
larger weathered fragments of the bedrock found above bedrock
material from which a soil is formed, determines composition and properties of the soil
The layer of organic detritus such as leaves, needles, twigs, and even animal bodies.
Rich, dark organic material formed by decay of vegetable matter, essential to soil's fertility
Two plates moving apart, new sea floor forms as they pull apart and magma fills the "crack."
Molten rock beneath the earth's surface
Two plates colliding and creating either a mountain range (2 continental) or a subduction zone (2 oceanic), or trench (oceanic and continental)
Point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
Earthquake secondary wave, Arrives second, only travel through solids, up down motion
Earth's outermost layer.
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
Earth's solid, rocky outer layer
Ring of Fire
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
Conversion of productive lands to desert
Act of sediment (solid matter) settling to the bottom of a liquid.
Process in which a desired metal is separated from the other elements in an ore mineral.
Processes that turn loose sediment into rock
rain forest tropical soils
Nutrient depleted- All nutrients are found in plant matter above soil
Best soils. Plants return nutrients to the ground when they die.
Side-by side brushing against one another - Causes earthquakes. San Andreas in California
Parent (Magma) after it has cooled in place
Parents (Metamorphic or Igneous rocks) after they have been weathered
Parents (Sedimentary or Igneous rocks) after they have been reheated and/or repressurized
weathering due to wind and water.
erosion, the change of physical surfaces over time.
weathering due to acid rain
weathering due to organisms
downward movement of water into soil
process of water carrying substances from upper layers of soil into lower layers (this is bad - pollutants are harder to remove the further down in the profile they are)
rate of water drainage into soil
% of pore space in soil by volume
decrease in porosity due to soil pore collapse
mixtures of synthetic or natural mixtures containing NP and K added to crops to increase food production
how well you can see through water, due to scattering of light. High turbidity results in less sun energy available for photosynthesis of underwater plants. Reduces oxygen in water. Caused by erosion
a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions
a large, steep-sided volcano that results from explosive eruptions of andesitic and rhyolitic lavas along convergent plate boundaries
cinder cone volcano
A small, steeply sloped volcano that forms from moderately explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material.
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