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AP Psychology Semester Review - First

Chapters 1-3, 5-9
STUDY
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The mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies.
Which of the following best describes the view of the mind held by Plato and Socrates?
the simplest mental processes
Wilhelm Wundt's early experiments were attempts to investigate which area of psychology?
Mental life; observable behavior
In its early years, psychology focused on the study of __________, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of __________.
evolutionary
Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?
blood chemistry
The biological perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by __________ __________.
social psychology
Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
industrial-organizational psychology
Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?
developmental
Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely that Dr. Winkle is a(n) __________ psychologist.
psychodynamic
A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a(n) __________ perspective.
biopsychosocial
Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?
mental processes
In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of __________ __________.
elements of sensory experience
The method of introspection was used by Titchener to identify __________ __ __________ __________.
exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.
The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to...
overconfidence
Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates __________.
curiosity, skepticism, humility
Historians of science describe which three attitudes as the basis of the scientific viewpoint?
critical thinking
A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates __________ __________.
a theory
According to Professor Fayad, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. His idea is an example of _ __________.
testable prediction that gives direction to research,
A hypothesis is a(n)...
can bias their observations and interpretations.
Psychologists' personal values and goals...
informed consent
A researcher who gathers and analyzes data from student essay test responses without talking with the students about the study violates which ethical principle of human experimentation?
statistically insignificant
What do researchers call a difference between the means of experimental and control groups when they know the averages are reliable and the difference between the groups is unlikely due to random chance or extraneous variables?
Larger, representative sample sizes help ensure reliable and valid results.
Why are researchers careful to use large, representative samples in their studies?
mean
In a distribution of test scores, which measure of central tendency would likely be the most affected by a couple of extremely high scores?
neurons
Dendrites are branching extensions of __________.
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.
An axon is...
myelin sheath
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n) __________ __________.
threshold
The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the __________.
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.
A synapse is a(n)...
interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.
Neural networks refer to...
pituitary
Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?
was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord.
Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this withdrawal reflex...
neural networks
A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple __________ __________.
reflex
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n) __________.
peripheral
The somatic nervous system is a component of the __________ nervous system.
destruction
A brain lesion refers to __________ of brain tissue.
PET scan
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n) _____ __________.
lapse into a coma.
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to...
thalamus
Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
cerebellum
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the __________.
cerebral cortex
Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your __________ __________.
visual perception
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of __________ __________.
Broca's area
Which brain area is primarily involved with controlling speech?
Wernicke's area
Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?
corpus callosum
Split-brain patients have had their __________ surgically cut.
left hemisphere
Someone trying to add a long series of three digit numbers is probably experiencing increased brain waves and bloodflow to which brain structure?
dual processing
Which cognitive neuroscience term reflects the idea that "much of our everyday thinking, feeling, and acting operates outside our conscious awareness"?
behavior geneticists
Assessing the relative effects of nature and nurture on individual differences in personality would be of most direct interest to __________ __________.
genes
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called __________.
a single egg cell by a single sperm cell.
Identical twins originate from the fertilization of...
less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.
Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are...
trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
Heritability refers to the extent to which...
biopsychosocial perspective
Which psychological perspective most directly addresses questions about the relative influences of nature and nurture?
are attracted to women with peak fertility.
Research suggests that young men prefer older women, mid-twenties men prefer women their own age, and older men prefer younger women. Based on this finding, evolutionary psychologists suggest that men...
Bitter tastes can be an indication of foods toxic toward a developing baby, so this preference developed through natural selection.
How do evolutionary psychologists explain why pregnant women from cultures across the world tend to avoid biter, strongly flavored foods?
genes
Molecular behavior geneticists seek links between __________ and specific disorders.
natural selection
Evolutionary psychology studies the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of __________ __________.
perception
The process by which we select, organize, and interpret sensory information in order to recognize meaningful objects and events is called __________.
selective attention
You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates __________ __________.
change blindness
While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates __________ __________.
absolute threshold
During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's __________ __________.
below one's absolute threshold for awareness.
A subliminal message is one that is presented...
8
If the just-noticeable difference for a 10-ounce weight is 1 ounce, the just noticeable difference for an 80-ounce weight would be __________ ounce(s).
bitter, sweet, sour, and salty
Our sense of taste originally was thought to involve only the following four sensations __________, __________, __________, and __________.
sensory interaction
With her eyes closed and her nose plugged, Chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear. Her experience best illustrates the importance of __________ __________.
olfactory receptors
Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home?
organized whole
A gestalt is best described as a(n) __________ __________.
shape constancy
As a door opens, it casts an increasingly trapezoidal shape on our retinas; however, we still perceive it as rectangular. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon?
our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Consciousness is...
a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.
Circadian rhythm refers to...
Stage 1
The hypnagogic sensations of falling or floating are most likely to occur during which sleep stage?
REM sleep
Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with _____ __________.
genetics makes a difference in how much sleep we need and get.
Some people function well with fewer than 6 hours of sleep per night, while others need 9 hours or more. Such differences in individual sleep patterns suggests that...
insomnia
Layla has difficulty going to sleep and staying asleep. Layla is most likely suffering from __________.
dissociation
The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves __________.
most mammals experience REM rebound.
The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that...
has close friends who use drugs.
The best predictor of an adolescent's pattern of drug usage is whether the adolescent...
often accompanied by visions of bright lights.
Near-death experiences are...
LSD
After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, Laqueta experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. Laqueta most likely experienced the effects of _____.
observational learning
After one chimapanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates __________ __________.
conditioned response
If the sound of an electric can opener causes a child to salivate because it has previously been associated with the presentation of food, the child's salivation to the sound of the can opener is a(n) __________ __________.
learned helplessness
After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates __________ __________.
conditioned stimulus
Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the __________ __________.
operant conditioning
In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?
B. F. Skinner.
The psychologist most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was...
chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
A Skinner box is a(n)...
modeling
Bandura's experiments indicate that __________ is important in the process of learning.
imitation
Mirror neurons most clearly provide us with the capacity for __________.
extrinsic motivation
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves __________ __________.
reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Spontaneous recovery refers to the...
the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.
Memory is best defined as...
encoding
The process of getting information into memory is called __________.
retrieval
The process of getting information out of memory is called __________.
short-term
After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his __________ memory.
automatic processing
Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as __________ __________.
effortful processing
Recording information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information requires __________ __________.
semantic encoding
Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of __________ __________.
acoustic encoding
Your ability to immediately recognize the voice over the phone as your mother's illustrates the value of __________ __________.
mnemonic devices
Memory aids that involve the use of vivid imagery and clever ways of organizing material are called __________ __________.
interference
People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize __________.
encoding failure
Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to __________ __________.