23 terms

Gender and leadership

Eagly & Fischer [2009].
Gender inequalities in power.

Implicit masculine values [sports & military].
Evidence of discrimination in hiring and evaluation.
Research indicates "Mommy track" not true.
Deficits in social capital.
Glass cliff for women.
Eagly & Carli [2007]. Labyrinth of leadership.
General notes.
Women and the labyrinth of leadership (HBR article; summarizes book, Through the labyrinth).
Only 6% of C-Suite in Fortune 500 are women.
Only 2% of F500 CEOs are women, and only 15% of the seats on the boards of directors are held by women.
Labyrinth more apropos than ceiling.
Eagly & Fischer [2009].
Deficits in social capital. Women have family responsibilities and also focus more on developing followers. The networking that builds social capital happens outside of work. Also, genders tend to network within their groups. All-women networks less powerful than men's networks.
Hymowitz & Schellhardt [1986].
WSJ article promulgated glass ceiling concept.
Eagly & Carli [2007]. Labyrinth of leadership. Response to glass ceiling. 1 of 2.
"The metaphor implies that women and men have equal access to entry- and midlevel positions. They do not. The image of a transparent obstruction also suggests that women are being misled about their opportunities, because the impediment is not easy for them to see from a distance. But some impediments are not subtle. Worst of all, by depicting a single, unvarying obstacle, the glass ceiling fails to incorporate the complexity and variety of challenges that women can face in their leadership journeys."
Eagly & Carli [2007]. Labyrinth of leadership. Response to glass ceiling. 2 of 2.
In truth, women are not turned away only as they reach the penultimate stage of a distinguished career. They disappear in various numbers at many points leading up to that stage.
Eagly & Fischer (2009). 2.
Gender inequalities in power. Gender and organizational reform.
1) Family-friendly personnel practices
2) More inclusive organizational cultures
3) Unbiased performance evaluations and recruitment
Eagly & Carli [2007]. Sources of barriers. 1 of 2.
Five "walls" in the labryinth:
1) Vestiges of prejudice. US GAO study accounted for many factors & still found discrimination.
2) Resistance to women's leadership. Women seen as communal, men as agentic. Double bind for women.
Eagly & Carli [2007]. Sources of barriers. 2 of 2.
3) Issues of leadership style. On plus side, women's leadership style associated with transformational leadership. Caring, collaborative, rewarding behaviors.
4) Demands of family life.
5) Underinvestment in social capital. Family obligations interfere. Male networking can be gender-focused.
Eagly & Carli [2007]. Labyrinth of leadership.

Management interventions that work; card 1 of 2.
Twelve interventions (1 - 6):
1. Increase awareness of prejudice.
2. Change the long-hours norm. Focus on productivity.
3. Reduce subjectivity of performance evaluation.
4. Use open-recruitment tools.
5. Ensure a critical mass. Wards off tokenism.
6. Avoid having a sole female member of any team. [Yoder, 2001]
Eagly & Carli (2007). Labyrinth of leadership.
Management interventions that work; card 2 of 2.
7. Help shore up social capital. Mentoring, especially from men.
8. Prepare women for line management with appropriately demanding assignments. P&G started program to ward off attrition of female leaders.
9. Establish family-friendly human resources practices. Flextime, telework, elder care, childcare, etc.
10. Give employees with significant parental responsibility more time to succeed.
11. Welcome women back. Keep lines of comm open.
12. Encourage male participation in family-friendly events.
Ayman & Korabik [2010]. 1 of 2.
Leadership: Why gender and culture matter.
Research needs to be culturally inclusive. Improves validity and generalizability of findings and inclusivity of theory.
Trait: image of leader strongly associated with masculinity.
Behavioral: Self-monitoring is related to leadership emergence and effectiveness. Women score lower in this area.
Ayman & Korabik [2010]. 2 of 2.
Leadership: Why gender and culture matter.
Women and men tend to emerge as leaders in situations congruent with social roles. Gender-role orientation stronger predictor of leadership behavior than sociodemographic gender. Androgyny is related to transformational leadership. TL and LMX not as effective in heterogeneous workgroups.
Ayman & Korabik [2010].
Gender and culture coexist in a symbiotic relationship.
Eagly & Chin [2010]. 1 of 3.
Diversity and leadership in a changing world.
Value of studies that combine diversity and leadership: changes our view of both. Leadership theory based on old models of white heteronormative males.
Eagly & Chin [2010]. 2 of 3.
Leaders' behavior is only one determinant of their effectiveness. Because leadership is a transaction between leaders and followers, effectiveness also reflects followers' expectations and prejudices.
Eagly & Chin [2010]. 3 of 3.
Contemporary cultural models of good leadership are less masculine than earlier models and are at least partially consistent with feminist visions of good leadership. TL has feminized qualities.
Ayman & Korabik [2010].
Leadership is not gender and culture neutral.
Evaluates trait, TL, and LMX theories.
Williams, 1995.
Glass escalator for men.
Homosocial reproduction.
Kanter, 1977: people favor others like themselves.
Ayman & Korabik [2010]. Trait theory and gender.
Traits related to leadership are not culturally universal.
Trait theory relies heavily on inferences about which leadership skills and traits are most effective.
These inferences are subject to stereotypes.
Ayman & Korabik [2010]. Behavioral theory and gender.
Measurement equivalence was compromised for heterogeneous-gender dyads.
Androgyny linked to high TL and low workplace stress.
TL: Male subordinates thought women with high IS and IC were less effective as leaders.
When women act male, are in male-dominated settings, or are evaluated by men, they are susceptible to being rated negatively.
Eagly & , 2002.
Role congruity theory