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Myers & DeWall Psychology Chapter 11: What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement (11th Edition)
Terms in this set (32)
A need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour.
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases.
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
The point at which your "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore the lost weight.
Basal metabolic rate
The body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
Hormone secreted by an empty stomach; sends "I'm hungry" signals to the brain.
Hormone secreted by the pancreas; controls blood glucose.
Protein hormone secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes the brain to increase metabolism and decreases hunger.
Digestive tract hormone; sends "I'm not hungry" signals to the brain.
A dislike of things unfamiliar.
The tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is an appropriate amount to consume.
Having no sexual attraction to others.
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period, and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
Sexual response cycle
The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
Inability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient bloodflow to the penis.
Female orgasmic disorder
Distress due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasm.
Sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or nonconsenting persons.
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
A life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections.
An enduring sexual attraction toward members of one's own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation).
The need to build relationships and to feel part of a group.
Deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups.
Excessive self-love and self-absorption.
A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard.
In psychology, passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals.
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