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102 terms

Psych Final

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Caroline is receiving treatment for depression. She believes that losing her job means that she is a failure. Her therapist, Dr. Clark, teaches her to challenge this belief by having Caroline list other areas of her life where she has been successful. Which of the following types of therapy best describes Dr. Clark's approach?
b. Beck's cognitive therapy
Since David's diagnosis of bipolar disorder, he has noticed that his family and friends treat him differently. This phenomenon can be best explained by
b. labeling theory
Some theorists believe that there are unwritten laws that govern our behavior, and any behavior that is contrary to these laws is seen as "abnormal." This is called
a. residual rule-breaking
Sonya's biological family has a history of schizophrenia. However, Sonya was adopted at a very young age and had a very healthy upbringing. The diathesis-stress interaction would predict which of the following regarding the probability of Sonya developing schizophrenia?
b. with the continuation of good environmental conditions, she is unlikely to develop schizophrenia.
Samuel is a 6-year-old boy whose teachers' complain that he is has difficulty in the following areas: sustaining attention, sitting still, and resisting urges to do other things in class. Taken together, these are classic symptoms of which disorder?
c. attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
Jamica is a 17-year-old female who is terrified of gaining weight despite the fact that she is 5'6" and weighs only 90 pounds. In an attempt to avoid gaining weight, Jamica only allows herself to eat lettuce and five saltine crackers each day. Which disorder best represents Jamica's symptoms based on the information given?
d. anorexia nervosa
Historically, it was believed that mental illness was the result of a dysregulation in the following four humors
b. phlegm, blood, yellow bile, black bile
Which of the following were NOT techniques employed by demonologists to deal with mental illness?
c. use of psychotropic medications
Monica is conducting a study in which half of the individuals (Group A) are told that they will likely perform poorly on an IQ test, and the other half (Group B) are told that they will likely perform well on the IQ test. In reality, both groups are similar in intelligence; however, Group B does indeed outperform Group A on the IQ test. This is due to the phenomenon known as
a. self-fulfilling prophecy
Dr. Phil takes a behaviorist/learning perspective toward mental illness. Therefore, he would agree with which of the following statements?
c. abnormal behavior varies by culture, depending on cultural rules of normal behavior.
Many cambonian women witnessed the horrible torture of their families during the Khmer Rouge reign of terror some later experienced traumatic blindness (a loss of sight without a physiological basis) this is an example of
A conversion disorder
Which of the following is a sexual dysfunction?
Impotence
Sexual disorders that involve unconventional sex objects or situations are called
Paraphilias
Research suggests that biological vulnerability to schizophrenia may lie in excess amounts of
Dopamine
Electroconvulsive therapy is most often used to alleviate
severe depression
Research indicated that we tend to attribute our own actions to ? factors and the behavior of others to ? factors
situational; personal
John is a pathological liar. He takes things from others, takes advantage of them and never exhibits any remorse after he is done. John has ? personality disorder
Antisocial
The tendency of people to place too much emphasis on personal factors when accounting for other people's actions is called
the fundamental attribution error
Which of the following demonstrates complementarity?
A dominant woman marries a submissive man
People are more likely to tune in to messages that are ? their beliefs rather than ones that are ? their beliefs
supportive of; non-supportive of
It is generally better to ? when trying to change someone's opinion
present both sides of an argument
Which of the following is true about both psychologists and psychiatrists?
Both diagnose and treat psychological problems
Which of the following cues aids in depth perception?
Binocular disparity
Binocular convergence
Relative motion parallax
All of the above
All of the above
Overall, which type of therapy is most effective?
no type of therapy is superior overall
Robert is trying to stop himself from using foul language. He wears a rubber band around his wrist that he snaps every time he says a bad word. Because snapping the rubber band hurts him, he eventually stops using foul language. Robert's plan is most similar to which type of therapy?
Aversion therapy
Which of the following is not a necessary condition for client-centered therapy?
Empathy
Genuineness
Interpretation
Unconditional positive regard
Interpretation
Which of the following is true?
Women hold onto love longer then men
You are in the cafeteria at lunch time (its very crowded) and you notice someone chocking in the middle of the room. Which principal explains why you will probably not help the chocking person because there are so many other people around that can do it?
Diffusion of responsibility
In order to test cause and effect hypothesis, researchers must use
experiments
Ivan used to ring a bell before giving food to his dog. The dog began salivating when it heard the bell. Now ivan rings the bell all the time without feeding his dog. The dog no longer salivates when it hears the bell.
What is the unconditioned stimulous in this example?
The food
What best explains why the dog no longer salivates when it hears the bell?
Extinction
The attainment of object permanance generally marks the end of the ? stage of cognitive development and the beginning of the ? stage
preoperational; sensorimotor
Which temperament is most common in children?
Easy
Difficult
Slow to warm up
They are all commonly equal
They are all commonly equal
According to Freud, the major function of a defense mechanism is to
avoid experiencing too much anxiety
A behavioral psychologist would probably not use which of the following techniques?
Free association
Which of the following is NOT true of systematic desensitization?
It involves relaxation
It involves listing a heirarchy of feared situations
It involves exposure (imaginary or real) to feared situations
It starts at the highest level of the fear heirarchy
It starts at the highest level of the fear heirarchy
The psychological discomfort caused by holding two attitudes or beliefs that contradict eachother is called
cognitive dissonance
Mark and Catherine have been in a relationship for 5 years. They respect eachother, are loyal to eachother and do their best to know eachother completely. What type of love best describes their relationship?
Companionate love
"The whole is greater than the sum of the parts" This statement is consistent with which theory of perception?
Gestaltism
Mike has a cut on his hand that is one inch long and Brad has a cut on his hand that is 3 inches long. Brad has damaged more tissue. Which theory of pain predicts that Brad will feel more pain than Mike?
Gate control theory
Which of the following is not a primary reinforcer?
Money, when you are broke
Which of the following is not a personality test?
Stanford-Binet
Thematic apperception test
MMPI
Rorschach
Stanford-Binet
Women attempt suicide ? often then men
Men complete suicide ? often then women
more; more
cognitive therapists believe that ? causes maladaptive behavior
faulty cognitions
Linda is in the second grade and is very good at math. Her teacher tells her that girls are not supposed to be good at math and that she should spend more time studying english. Next semester Linda does poorly at math. A psychologist might call this a
self-fulfilling prophecy
The type of love that usually lasts for a relatively short period of time, is intense, and leaves you feeling confused is referred to as ? love
Passionate
which of the following persons is most likely to benefit from electro-convulsive shock therapy?
A severely depressed person
A drawback of correlation research is that it
It does not show cause and effect
When we bring in and organize information from the enviornment we are engaged in
Bottom up processing
You have a dream of driving your car through the rocky mountains. Freud would say that the manifest content of your dream is
The Rocky Mountains
Julie trips and falls down the stairs on her way out of psychology class. She gets up and is fine, but is extremely embaressed, her face feels hot and she is shaking. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion
Julie is shaking and her face is hot because she is embarassed
The variable that is selected and manipulated systematically in a controlled study, is called the ? variable
Independent
Which of the following manuals lists and categorizes all of the mental disorders?
DSM-IV
Alcohol is a negative reinforcer if it
reduces the drinker's anxiety and worrys about problems
Researchers have found that divers who memorize material underwater remember it better underwater than above water. This is best described as an instance of
State dependence
A person may become fixated at a developmental stage according to Freud because of
Excessive frustration of needs
Dr. Skinner feeds his pigeon every third time the pigeon pecks the lever. This is an example of a ? schedule of reinforcement
Fixed ratio
Which example is not one of the Kubler-Ross stages?
Denial
Anger
Social withdrawl
Acceptance
Social withdrawl
A researcher finds 4 correlations. Which one is the strongest?
.90
.01
-.89
-.99
-.99
Which of the following typically cause the most stress?
Death of a spouse
The capacity of short-term memory is
About 7 "chunks" of information
Medications that decrease the amount of dopamine are commonly used to treat
Schizophrenia
What is the relationship between attitudes and behavior?
Large positive correlation
In terms of increased likelihood of behavior ? is important in initially establishing a relationship, whereas, ? is more important in maintaining a long term relationship
similarity; complementarity
The following statement would best represent which psychological model? "If i am allowed to control their enviornment, I can make these children grow to be anything i want."
Behaviorist
If you know that a correlation between anxiety and test performance is -1.00 then you can:
Conclude that high anxiety causes poor test performance
Accurately predict test performance from anxiety
Explain why high anxiety cause poor test performance
All of the above
All of the above
Assume that whenever your dog whines at the door you let him in or out. As a result the dogs whining behavior increases. What is being applied to the dog in this situation?
Positive reinforcement
Most students complain if given two final exams on the same day. What important theory of memory (or forgetting) best justifies their complaint?
Interference theory
The general term for strategies or devices intended to help memory is
Mnemonics
Fear of speaking or eating in public are both examples of ? phobias
Social
Gena has slept with the light on ever since she was a child. Her therapist believes this was caused by a learned association Gena made in childhood between a dark room and an unpleasant experience. This is most likely a
Phobia
After being passed up for a promotion and then getting into a heated argument with his son, a man disappears. He shows up 2 weeks later in another town with no memory of who he is, or how he got there he appears to be suffering from a
Dissociative disorder
After going to a physician complaining of memory loss, Jeff is told that while he was under hypnosis, several different personalities emerged. Each personality is unique, with a name and separate memories. Jeff has a ? disorder
Dissociative
Bringing repressed feelings into consciousness is the goal of ? therapy
Psychoanalytic
A client lies on the couch with a therapist sitting out of sight, behind him. The therapist gets to know the clients problems through free association, and positive and negative transference. The therapist encourages the client to work through his problems. This is ? therapy
Psychoanalytic
A therapist offers his patient unconditional positive regard, values the patient, and shows acceptance by reflecting the patient's statements. The therapist is using ? Therapy
client-centered
Dave's mother suggests that he talk to a doctor because of his crippling feelings of inferiority. The doctor suggests that Daves problem stems from internal processes such as self-defeating beliefs, unrealistic expectancies, and negative thinking. This view is typical of the ? model of abnormality
cognitive-behavioral
The opposite of depression is
Mania
An affective disorder than includes both depression and mania is known as ? disorder
bipolar
bipolar disorder is ? common than depression and has a ? biological component than depression
less; stronger
Which of the following is not an anxiety disorder?
a phobia
obsessive-compulsive
conversion disorder
posttraumatic stress disorder
conversion disorder
If patients report blindness, deafness, paralysis, or seizures, but physicians cannot find any evidence of a physical problem or cause, they are likely to suspect ? disorder
conversion
DSM-IV recognizes ? main types of sexual disorders
three
According to the gate-control theory of pain Which of the following would close the gate?
Medication
Mechanisms that permit or block the passage of pain signals to the brain are part of
the gate control theory of pain
the largest percentage of psychologists are involved in which of the following fields?
Clinical and counseling psychology
Closure is referred to the perceptual processing in which people have the tendency to perceive incomplete patterns or figures as complete. This is a perceptual rule of which of the following?
Gestaltism
The argument that perception is an active, integrative phenomenon that is based on inborn tendencies to organize stimuli is emphasized by the school
Gestalt
A group of psychologists at a cocktail party are discussing what kinds of questions are most usefully studied in the field of psychology. Which of the following pairs of psychologists is most likely to find agreement?
Clinical and counseling psychologists
About half of all psychologists specialize in ? psychology
Clinical or counseling
A young boy is attacked by a large dog. He is now terribly afraid of all dogs. His phobia of dogs is best explained by ? theory
learning
Most psychoanalytic theorists believe that anxiety disorders are the result of
Unconscious conflict
Lynn has not slept well since the plane crash she survived three years ago. Lately she has experienced chronic anxiety and insomnia. When she does sleep, the nightmares are so frightening she usually wakes up in a cold sweat with her heart racing. Her symptoms are typical of ? disorder
Posttraumatic stress
Which of the following is a true statement?
Woman are more likely to attempt suicide, but men are more likely to succeed at it
Men are more likely than women to succeed in a suicide attempt because men
use more lethal means, such as firearms
the psychoanalytic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of
unconscious conflicts
Edith's strange behavior has led her daughter Anne to consider institutionalizing her. Edith's mother and grandmother were both institutionalized in their lifetimes and Anne has already sought psychiatric help. Edith's strange behavior best fits the ? model of abnormality
biological
the most common mood disorder is
depression
Dave's wife suggests that he talk to a doctor because of his inability to cope with criticism. The doctor suggests that Dave's problem represents the expression of an unresolved internal conflict that has it's roots in Dave's childhood. This view is typical of the ? model of abnormality
Psychoanalytic
According to behavior therapy, the therapist should
teach a client more satisfying ways of behaving
Currently the cause of ADHD is thought to be
biological and/or hereditary factors
Julian seeks professional help for his fear of spiders. In stages his therapist shows his pictures, movies, and models of spiders, then a real dead spider, a small live spider in a jar, several live spiders in a jar, and finally a live spider loose in the room. At each stage, he made sure that Julian was fully relaxed. This technique is known as
Systematic desensitization