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Disasters & Failures Final
Terms in this set (125)
Applying a well-defined process to try to understand the natural world is called ___________. Applying this understanding to create useful artifacts is ________.
What is the step in the scientific method that develops a tentative explanation (informally called an "educated guess") from observations, measurements, and characterizations of something we wish to learn about. Example: "if she's made of wood, then she is a wtich."
We need to ask questions when dealing with a failure. Which of the following is NOT one of the questions from your lecture notes?
Should we file a lawsuit?
The number of data points you collect from a population (e.g. peoples weight) for experiments is called the
What does it mean when our data size is closed?
there are a finite number of possibilities e.g (male,female)
Errors that result from some limitation in the method of data collection, e.g. measuring a large room with a ruler, are called
Errors that result from some uniform problem in the way of data collection, e.g. weighing someone on a faulty scale that is always 5 pounds off, are called
The ability of a measurement to match the actual value of the thing being measured by
When using a good measurement device, we can stop when at least 68% of our data falls within one __________ of the mean ("reality")
According to the video by Neil DeGrasse Tyson "_______________ empowers you to know when someone" is making claims that do not have evidence of being true. The example given was about the healing properties of crystals.
Consider the National Geographic video about a design competition to build a huge bridge from Denmark to Sweden. What was the main problem with using an arch style bridge?
There was boo big of a risk that large ships would hit the bottom part of the arch (destroying the bridge)
What type of bridge allows the longest spans of any design? (A bridge span is length of suspended roadway between the bridge's towers)
What kind of bridge is this.
its a Beam. sorry peeps, no picture. but if you dont get this one, youre an idiot.
based on your lab experience and the lectures, which bridge type is stronger?
A. Beam B. Truss
A bridge's traffic creates what type of load?
What type of bridge did the Romans commonly use? Many of these are still standing. Its shape greatly reduces its ability to flex. What materials did they use?
What was one of the main lessons learned from the Tay River Bridge failure?
Iron is not a good material for large ridge projects
Because of the National Bridge Inspection Standards, all of our bridges are perfectly safe and do not need replacement?
The Falls View Bridge spans the Niagara Falls gorge. What was the primary cause of failure?
Severe environmental loads
Considering the many factors, like strength, cost, and maintainability, which 2 materials are generally best for bridge construction?
Steel or Reinforced Concrete
The kind of force that acts to pull apart an object is:
The kind of force that acts to twist an object, like a truss or a washcloth is:
Which of the following is NOT a radiation therapy treatment tool?
Which kind of cells can better repair their DNA
the use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells is called
subatomic particles that have a negative charge are called
an example of electromagnetic radiation is
atoms is which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving them a net positive or negative electrical charge are called
the medical diagnosis tool that uses non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and magnetism to examine soft tissue, like the heart or brain is called
The medical diagnosis tool that uses relatively high-level electromagnetic radiation to examine hard structure, like bone, is called
As radiation passes through the body it ionizes oxygen creating
Which of the following problems was probably NOT a factor in the failures of the Therac-25
it was made in Canada
What was the cause of patients being hurt or killed by the Therac-25
they received a massive dose of radiation
the symptom that patients reported in many of the case reports was a
burning or shock sensation
on Feb. 24,1989, a hole in United Airlines flight 811 raises concern over ____ on older planes.
Which agency is responsible for the safety of civilian aviation?
A(n) _____ is a specific shape, most often of airplane wings, which helps generate lift.
What is one of the reasons an airplane's cabin is pressurized
so people can breath
Which types of flights tend to place more stress loading on airplanes?
many take-offs and landings
What are the 4 primary forces on an airplane?
Which of the following was NOT one of the design faults of the De Havilland disasters?
the drag force on the plane was too great.
The Lockheed-Martin F22 airplane was finally returned to flying in September 18th 2011 because of a problem with
There was a problem with the oxygen delivery system
After a hole in the roof of the fuselage occurred on a Southwest Airlines airplane, what action did the pilot take so that the passengers wouldn't freeze to death or suffocate? This happened in April of 2011 (video)
the pilot descended ("nosedived") to get to a lower altitude
What gasses are used by lighter-than-air flight, like hot-air balloons?
helium or hydrogen
What failure can happen that could cause the crew and passengers to freeze, suffocate, or their bodies to decompress?
loss of cabin pressure
What is the measure for the flow of electric charge (electrons)? The unit of measurement is amps.
If an atom has more electrons than protons, it has what kind of charge?
What causes electrical current to flow in a circuit by "pushing the electrons around"
What is the thing that reduces the voltage coming into your home?
A single tree falling anywhere along a feeder line can cause the power to go out in
many homes (100's, 1000's)
What is the part of the power grid that initially generates electricity that eventually comes to your home?
In the Northeast Blackout, a single power line at a station trips off-line, causing the rest of the lines to overload, shutting down the plant's generators. This led to:
a cascading effect wherein load imbalances shutdown many stations
What is one of the fuels used to generate electricity in electric power plants. (From the video "What is the Smart Grid" and lecture notes)
From the video "What is the Smart Grid", electric companies are adding sensors in places that use lots of electricity, like factories (and possibly to smart homes in the future) What is one of the reasons described?
Lets electric companies predict electrical use better than before.
For nuclear power generation, the process of splitting atoms is used to
Nuclear fusion is the process of
combining lighter atoms into heavier ones
The action of splitting an atom generates
An element commonly used in nuclear power is
One of the common types of nuclear reactors is a
pressurized water reactor
To produce less heat, a nuclear power operator moves the control rods
into the water
In addition to concerns about safely operating a nuclear power plant, the primary concerns is:
Radioactive waste storage
Following 2 explosions, extremely radioactive components of the reactor catch on fire, resulting in deadly radioactive material covering practically the whole of the northern hemisphere. Where did this occur?
In the greenpeace video we watched, what is the main concern for the west African mining towns?
dangerous radioactive affecting the health of the population
In one of the UAE videos and our class discussion, which of the following was NOT discussed as a reason to seriously consider using more nuclear energy?
Decreasing availability of a trained workforce
From your lecture notes, one of the better methods of reducing the risk of software error in telecommunications systems is to
build many small systems that talk to each other
Cell phone calls travel from the cell tower to a _____ (According to the animation on "How telephones work")
Sounds and electrical signals in the real world are (ex. voice, live music)
In analog to digital conversation, what is the advantage of faster sample rates?
it is a better reproduction of analog sounds
E-mail messages and text messaging are example of ____ communication, Polite conversations are not an example of this form.
What is NOT a benefit to using parallel or distributed computing __________?
they do not require software (computer programs)
According to the definition written on the board in lecture, ________ which located in a central office, makes connections and relays speech information.
One way to perform distributed computing is use many inexpensive computers connected via a high speed network. This is called _________ computing.
Under ideal circumstances, 2 computers can do the same task as one in 1/2 the time. This is an example of
Using multiple computers to perform the same task using different methods, comparing the resulting, and choosing the best answer is an example of
An event in the early stages of AT&T failure was the result of
a miscommunication between some NY switching station software and connected switches
Without proper steps being taken, concurrent software can sffer from a condition in which two processes are each waiting on each other to do something. This is called
One way to transfer a telephone call overseas is via satellite (for example you call Paris, France from Fort Worth, Texas) Another way is by
From the video on IBM's Roadrunner super computer, an application (other than use by the telecommunications industry) is
winning at Jeopardy
In part, improving manufacturing processes leads to lower prices and the quality of the product improves. This phase of the product development life cycle is called
product maturity/mass market
According to our in-class (and lab), the 1st phase of the product development life cycle is
In the alternate model of the product development lifecycle, the 2nd and 3rd phases of the four phases are
According to the Wharton School presentation (video), mass market adoption tends to ___________ how much "early adopters" value a product. Two examples were clothing store Diesel and Porche vehicles
Referring to the previous question, this phenomenon is known as
Consider the case of Beta and VHS tape players. The superior recording technology, Beta:
did not become the market choice (VHS tape players became the only position)
Do companies tend to wait until old products are useless before they start thinking about creating new ones?
The competing audio technology that led to the end of the 8-track tapes was the
For most middle-class people, if an item (like a cell phone) broke after the product had reached the final stages of the product development lifecycle, they would
buy a newer model
From the video "A Brief History of the Internet", in 1969 the US Department of Defense funded the
From the video "World Wide Web in Pain English", binary coded packets of information sent from the Web is translated to a form we can understand (ex video,images) by a:
Computers that make web pages available to us are called
Those people with a goal to steal or destroy government or business information are called
The combined DARPA network & NSFNET became the _______ in the 1980's. It had only 1,000 computers; joining military, government and university computers together that began providing services for the use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file archives, ad databases
To do a search, _________ conducts a series of simultaneous searches requiring only seconds. This is the product of a combination of distributed processing and fast selection algorithms.
In which decade does a. the RAND corporation do a study of how the US Air Force could communicate during and after a nuclear war and b. 4 universities: UCLA, UCSB, Standford, and U. of Utah are connected to this new network
In 1992, CERN invents __________; 1.1 million computers connected by this time
the World Wide Web
Consider the Internet architecture (slide "Understanding the Internet"). The lowest (bottom) level is the
physical level (DSL,Base-T, etc.)
_____________ is the process of a person acting like another person or entity to get you to send them personal information (like your credit card number)
For the crew, what is one of the physical effects of being in space
The ISS travels
in between the inner and outer radiation belts
One of the dangerous by-products produced within the space station (which must be removied)
On the ISS what is meant by the term "life boat"
its a craft to get crew to Earth in case of emergency
On the space shuttle that failed during take-off, the O-ring design on the solid booster rockets and cold weather led to the death of all astronauts. Which shuttle was this?
Radiation exposure is a significant concern for people living on the ISS because it can lead to
The astronauts currently can travel to and from the ISS on the
The ISS was launched and built
In modular components
(NASA video) In addition to Math and the Sciences, another discipline NASA reported as important members of living on the ISS is
Not including the U.S what are 2 countries significantly involved in the ISS
Canada Japan Russia
In his speech at Rice University, President Kennedy said
"We choose to go to the ______ in this decade and do the other things, not because they are __________, but because they are _________."
We can send unmanned spacecraft (and associated exploratory equiptment) to Mars and other places. Why then do some people strongly support sending humans?
mankind's inherent need for such experiences.
per our class discussion, why do we need to use "intelligent" (autonomous) robots rather than remote controlled exploration devices for unmanned missions to Mars?
It takes too long for the signals to travel between Earth and Mars
What was the order of the 3 space programs we studied? (Which came 1st,2nd and 3rd?)
Mercury, Gemini, Apollo
In 1962, John Glenn made the first US manned orbital flight. On July 20, 1969, Commander __________ became the first man to walk on the moon. he said the historic words, "One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind"
Two of the objectives of the Mercury program were 1. investigate human's ability to function in space and 2. to recover the spacecraft safely. Per your notes, the 3rd was to:
orbit a spacecraft around Earth
Disregarding concerns of North American Aviation (the capsule maker), NASA insisted on two aspects of the final Apollo 1 design, which likely led in part to the death of the astronauts, One was:
making the exit hatch open inward instead of outward
Who were the 3 astronauts that died in the fire on the Apollo 1 mission?
Grissom, Chaffe, White
Lord Kelvin, the noted Victorian era (1800's) physicist, declared that ______________ was impossible.
Dr .Kaku states that _____________ will probably prove to be impossible, even far in the future.
perpetual motion machines
Three research groups, including Cal Tech, have demonstrated evidence for being able to make objects appear invisible. They did this by demonstrating that:
visible light can bend around objects
Lightsabers that can slice through steel are already possible, according to Dr. Kaku, using plasmas. What does plasma mean in this context?
a state of matter like very hot gasses
Telepathy (controlling devices or reading someone's mind) may be possible using
computer brain implants
While there are many paradoxes that make it seem impossible, ___________ violates no known laws of Physics (based on our current understanding), and thus may be possible in the distant future:
One of the useful reasons it would be helpful to find a way to give robots emotions is to do what?
To allow them to make better decisions, using value judgements.
Scientists develop models of phenomena to better understand our world and to make predictions about things behave. Currently, scientists are using imperfect models that consider light as either a ______________ or a ____________.
The special theory of relativity (Einstein) tells us that normal ___________ in normal space cannot travel faster than light.
One way we might be able travel to distant planets is to find a non- space-time way to transport ourselves. An example given in your notes is
finding a stable wormhole
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