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Psychology 101

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Psychology arose from 2 traditions; one used a more rational approach while the other combined questions about the mind with scientific exploration.
Philosophical tradition, physiological tradition
_________ established the first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
Wilhelm Wundt
_________ studied the contents and structure of the mind; structuralism.
Edward Titchner
_________ studied human motivations and functions and thought of emotions; functionalism. (Father of American Psychology)
William James
________ brought a medical tradition into psychology, founding the psycho-dynamic approach and used psychoanalysis to treat patients.
Sigmund Freud
psychological perspective focused on unconscious drives which ornate from early childhood experience.
psycho-dynamic perspective
psychological perspective focused on behavior as the proper thing to study.
behaviorism
psychological perspective focused on the individual as a whole and the goal of self-actualization.
humanistic perspective
psychological perspective focused on the mental processes behind thought and behavior.
cognitive perspective
psychological perspective focused on psychology as a product of the brain and nervous system.
biological perspective
psychological perspective focused on the ways natural selection produced our brain and behavior.
evolutionary perspective
psychological perspective focused on the ways thoughts and behavior are similar or different across cultures.
sociocultural perspective
Psychology is the study of...
behavior and mental processes of the individual.
What are the 4 goals of psychology?
observe, explain, predict, and control behavior.
As a science, Psychology must investigate questions that are _________ or able to be disproven, then must use explanations that are ________ or the simplest possible explanation.
falsifiable, parsimonious
What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
Theory is an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon, an hypothesis is a testable statement of the relationship between causes and consequences.
Independent variable
manipulated, controlled
Dependent variable
affected and measured
Between subjects design
subjects are only used once
Within subjects design
subjects used more than once or "matched"
A study found that people who slept with their shoes on tended to wake up with headaches. Does this mean that this caused the headaches? What else might explain these results?
No, association does not prove causation.
The ________ debate is over how much your genes or environment effect your behavior.
Nature vs. Nurture
What is the principle of natural selection?
organisms who have traits best suited to their environment produce more offspring
An organism that is especially well adapted to their environment is said to be _______.
fit
Label the parts of the neuron
dendrites, cell body (soma), axon
when neurons send an electrical signal down the axon they use ________, which is a series of all or none depolarizations.
action potentials
the gap between neuron where neurotransmitters are sent between cells
synapse
What are the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex?
frontal: judgement and decision making
parietal: touch, pain, temp
occipital: vision, color, shape
temporal: hearing and sound
Longitudinal design
studying the same individuals over a long period of time
Cross-sectional design
studying of different groups of people at various points in development
_______ outlined the 4 stages of cognitive development; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
Jean Piaget
________ studied the social deprivation in monkeys: wire and cloth mothers.
Harry Harlow
Idea that intense social and emotional bond with a caregiver is typically formed early in human life.
Human attachment
difference in theories of general intelligence and those of multiple intelligences
G theory: g was the single common factor among all mental abilities

2 types: fluid and crystallized; problem solving and wisdom
8 types
3 types: analytical, practical, creative
Fluid intelligence
ability to learn new things
Crystallized intelligence
knowledge of the world
measure of intelligence that is widely used today, with an average score of ___.
IQ: intelligence quotient, 100
the idea that we can control human evolution through selective breeding (once used to exclude people from immigrating to the US)
eugenics
group differences in IQ can be explained by the prevalence of ________ and the lack of environmental resources.
poverty
Behaviorism
all things that organisms do—including acting, thinking, and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors
associating 2 stimuli is __________ conditioning, associating behavior and a consequence is ________ conditioning.
classical, operant
UCS, UCR, CS, CR
meat powder, salivation due to powder, bell, salivation without powder due to bell
a vending machine operates on a ______ schedule of reinforcement
fixed ratio
slot machine operates on a _______ schedule of reinforcement.
variable ratio
positive reinforcement
treating yourself with ice cream for getting an A
negative reinforcement
getting out of class early for getting an A
positive punishment
squirting cat with water when jumps on table
negative punishment
stay in at recess for steeling cookies
Reinforcement ______ behavior, Punishment _______ behavior.
increases, decreases
3 processes of memory
encoding: laying down memories
storage: retention of encoded memories
retrieval: recovery of memories
what is STM and its capacity?
short term memory, holding info "in mind"; about 5-9 items (magic number = 7 +/- 2)
what two ways can LTM be accessed?
1.recall: produce info
2.recognition: realizing you've seen something before, involves MORE retrieval cues
difference between internal and external motivations
internal drives: biological (hunger, thirst)
external incentives: situational (curiosity of new place)
Do humans have more motivation from instincts or from learning?
learning; external incentives
US culture effects the ___ of food which makes it difficult to purchase healthy food and through ____ size, which can cause people to over eat.
price/cost, portion
______ behavior has only been studied during the last several decades due to its close ties with morality and religious beliefs.
sexual
Johnson and Masters found that sexual behavior is based on both physiological and _______ components.
psychological
_______ surveys many Americans to understand the prevalence of sexual behaviors.
Alfred Kinsey
social psychology
study of how your thoughts, feelings, motives, and behavior is influenced by your interactions with others
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
underestimating situational factors while overestimating dispositional factors
idea that if I do something for you, you should do something in return
reciprocity
What are stereotypes, and how can the lead to being prejudice?
A commonly held belief about a group of people, you think your group is better than the others so there is a learned negative attitude towards a group of people.
How can we control prejudice?
for complex relationships: relationships across group borders. work together instead of compete
a ________bias is the idea that my group is better than yours.
in-group bias
Studies by Zimbardo, Asch, and Milgram...
stanford prison study
vision test
shock (obedience to authority)
(all show obedience and conformity to specific roles, etc.)
_______ is when people do the same things as those around them
conformity
People may engage in the same behavior as those around them because they are convinced as the others around them, called ________; or because they don't want others to think badly of them, called __________.
informational social influence (private conformity), normal social influence (public conformity)
Bystander effect
phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress
3 things that must happen in order for a bystander to help a stanger
must notice the emergency, must feel responsibility....
prosocial behavior
voluntary behavior intended to benefit another or society as a whole
altruism
acting in response to a motive to benefit others: selflessness
criteria for calling behavior and mental processes abnormal
must cause personal distress, maladaptive behavior, irrational or unpredictable behavior, (violation of norms = no longer recognized)
Why was violation of social norms problematic as criteria?
people are different, some people like to violate norms, this does not mean they have a mental illness
psychopathology
disruptions in emotional behavior and thought processes that lead to personal distress or keep a person from achieving life goals
demonic and medical models of mental illness
demonic: spirits infested the body
medical: biological disorder
objectivity and mental illness
to maintain objectivity, psychologists use detailed diagnostic criteria
anxiety, mood, and personality disorder characteristics
fear, anxiety, extremes, maladaptive, dillusional
reaction time
amount of time it takes to complete a task (more steps will take longer)
automatic and controlled processes
happens automatically, require attention
serial and parallel processes
happen in order, happen at the same time
what makes human language special
shared, symbolic, and generative
problem solving and reasoning
combining info from memory with current info to achieve a goal
functional fixedness
mental block that inhibits finding a new function for a previously known object
deductive reasoning
generic to specific: all birds lay eggs, robin is bird, robin lays eggs
inductive reasoning
specific to general: new mammal species discovered, can it lay eggs?
change blindness
we miss big changes in the environment (not paying attention)
emotion
complex pattern of mental and physical changes in response to an event
James-Lange theory of emotion
body sensations are read by the brain and produce emotion
stimulus > body reactions > feelings
cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
your appraisal of the situation and your bodys reactions results in feeling
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
stimulus > feeling > body reacts
Paul Ekman facial expressions
7 basic emotions (suprise, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, contempt), however there are cross cultural differences
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