encoding: laying down memories storage: retention of encoded memories retrieval: recovery of memories
what is STM and its capacity?
short term memory, holding info "in mind"; about 5-9 items (magic number = 7 +/- 2)
what two ways can LTM be accessed?
1.recall: produce info 2.recognition: realizing you've seen something before, involves MORE retrieval cues
difference between internal and external motivations
internal drives: biological (hunger, thirst) external incentives: situational (curiosity of new place)
Do humans have more motivation from instincts or from learning?
learning; external incentives
US culture effects the ___ of food which makes it difficult to purchase healthy food and through ____ size, which can cause people to over eat.
______ behavior has only been studied during the last several decades due to its close ties with morality and religious beliefs.
Johnson and Masters found that sexual behavior is based on both physiological and _______ components.
_______ surveys many Americans to understand the prevalence of sexual behaviors.
study of how your thoughts, feelings, motives, and behavior is influenced by your interactions with others
Fundamental attribution error (FAE)
underestimating situational factors while overestimating dispositional factors
idea that if I do something for you, you should do something in return
What are stereotypes, and how can the lead to being prejudice?
A commonly held belief about a group of people, you think your group is better than the others so there is a learned negative attitude towards a group of people.
How can we control prejudice?
for complex relationships: relationships across group borders. work together instead of compete
a ________bias is the idea that my group is better than yours.
Studies by Zimbardo, Asch, and Milgram...
stanford prison study vision test shock (obedience to authority) (all show obedience and conformity to specific roles, etc.)
_______ is when people do the same things as those around them
People may engage in the same behavior as those around them because they are convinced as the others around them, called ________; or because they don't want others to think badly of them, called __________.
informational social influence (private conformity), normal social influence (public conformity)
phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress
3 things that must happen in order for a bystander to help a stanger
must notice the emergency, must feel responsibility....
voluntary behavior intended to benefit another or society as a whole
acting in response to a motive to benefit others: selflessness
criteria for calling behavior and mental processes abnormal
must cause personal distress, maladaptive behavior, irrational or unpredictable behavior, (violation of norms = no longer recognized)
Why was violation of social norms problematic as criteria?
people are different, some people like to violate norms, this does not mean they have a mental illness
disruptions in emotional behavior and thought processes that lead to personal distress or keep a person from achieving life goals
demonic and medical models of mental illness
demonic: spirits infested the body medical: biological disorder
objectivity and mental illness
to maintain objectivity, psychologists use detailed diagnostic criteria
anxiety, mood, and personality disorder characteristics
fear, anxiety, extremes, maladaptive, dillusional
amount of time it takes to complete a task (more steps will take longer)
automatic and controlled processes
happens automatically, require attention
serial and parallel processes
happen in order, happen at the same time
what makes human language special
shared, symbolic, and generative
problem solving and reasoning
combining info from memory with current info to achieve a goal
mental block that inhibits finding a new function for a previously known object
generic to specific: all birds lay eggs, robin is bird, robin lays eggs
specific to general: new mammal species discovered, can it lay eggs?
we miss big changes in the environment (not paying attention)
complex pattern of mental and physical changes in response to an event
James-Lange theory of emotion
body sensations are read by the brain and produce emotion stimulus > body reactions > feelings
cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
your appraisal of the situation and your bodys reactions results in feeling
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
stimulus > feeling > body reacts
Paul Ekman facial expressions
7 basic emotions (suprise, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, contempt), however there are cross cultural differences