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Type 1

-pancreas no longer produces insulin
-juvenile onset, insulin dependent

Type 2

-pancreas produces insulin, but body tissue resistant to it
-adult onset, non-insulin dependent

Galega Officinalis

cn: goat's rue
geo: europe to iran
ethno: type 2
active: galegine, phenformin
chem deriv: phenformin--> metformin (glucophage)
mech: reduction of insulin resistance
modern use: type 2

Larrea Divaricata

cn: creosote bush
geo: USA & NW Mexico
ethno: type 2, kidney disease
active: masoprocol

Momordica Charantia

-bitter melon, bitter cucumber
-tx type 2

Cinnamomun Verum


Hypericum perforatum

-st. john's wort
-orally for depression, type 2; topically for wounds

active: hyperforin
reduces insulin resistance

Camellia sinensis


coffea arabica

NE Africa

Vernonia amygdala

bitter leaf
W. Africa

Opuntia basileris

-prickly pear
-mexico, SW USA
-orally by indigenious groupt to type 2
-reduces sugar absorption by intestine

Gymnema sylvestre

-active: gymnemic acid
-mech: when leaves are chewed, ability of the taste buds to perceive sweetness is diminished which reduces appetite and treats type 2

Synsepalum Dulcificum

-cn: agbayun & miracle fruit
-geo: west africa
-active: miraculin=glycoprotein with trailing carb chain

-mech: chewing on fruit increases perceived sweetness of food and sour foods to taste very sweet; may work by distorting shape of sweetness receptors so they become responsive to acids instead of sugar; lasts 15-60 min

-therapeutic: ability of fruit to turn non sweet foods into sweet foods w/o caloric penalty

Thaumatoccus daniellii

geo: west africa
active: thaumatic (intensely sweet protein)
thera: ability of fruit to turn non-sweet foods into sweet foods

Stevia Rebaudiana

cn: sweet leaf, sugar leaf
geo: SA
active: steviol glycoside
thera: ability of fruit to turn non-sweet foods into sweet foods

Morinda Citrifola

cn: noni, nono
geo: SE Asia
ethnobotanical use: fruit used to treat type 2, arthritis, applied topically to treat skin boils

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