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Chapter 6 Terms and Names Enlightenment and Revolution

World Studies - Mr. Hunt
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Aristotle
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers
Ptolemy
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe (heliocentric theory)
Nicolaus Copernicus
suggested that the sun, not Earth, was the center of our solar system (heliocentric)
Galileo Galilei
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Francis Bacon
developed the scientific method
René Descartes
"I think therefore I am" , French philosopher and mathematician
Isaac Newton
discovered gravity, laws of motion, calculus
Thomas Hobbes
believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central government
John Locke
believed all people have a right to life, liberty, and property
Montesquieu
the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Believed that the human beings are naturally good and free
Cesare Beccaria
Italian philosophe who published On Crimes and Punishments
Mary Wollstonecraft
Philosophe who believed in Women's rights
Marie Thérèse Gioffrin
French; Most Famous Paris salon host; Financed Diderot
Voltaire
French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)
Denis Diderot
Wrote the encyclopedia
Johann Sebastian Bach
German baroque organist and contrapuntist
George Frederick Handel
A German composer who wrote most of his pieces in England.
Franz Haydn
prolific Austrian composer who influenced the classical form of the symphony (1732-1809)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
prolific Austrian composer and child prodigy
Ludwig Beethoven
This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music
Henry Fielding
English novelist and dramatist (1707-1754)
Daniel Defoe
English writer remembered particularly for his novel about Robinson Crusoe (1660-1731)
Frederick the Great
king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. introduced freedom of religion.
Joseph II
The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire.
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the Russian empire (1729-1796)
King George III
king of England during the Revolutionary War
Thomas Jefferson
wrote the declaration of independence
Lord Cornwallis
british general who surrendered at Yorktown
geocentric theory
belief that the Earth is the center of the Universe
heliocentric theory
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
scientific method
A systematic approach used in scientific study that typically includes observation, a hypothesis, experiments, data analysis, and a conclusion
inquisition
a church court set up to try people accused of heresy
social contract
the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
natural rights
life, liberty, and property
philosophes
thinkers or philosophers of the Enlightenment
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
aristocracy
the most powerful members of a society
salon
elegant sitting room where guests are received
baroque
elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
Navigation Acts
Laws passed by the British to control colonial trade
French & Indian War (Seven Years' War)
The fourth war between the French and English in which both sides were aided by Indians. The Seven Years War was the continuation and intensification of the French and Indian War.1756-1763
Stamp Act
a tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American colonies
Boston Tea Party
protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor
First and Second Continental Congresses
'''First'''- Set up a boycott on British goods and set up for second continental congress. '''Second'''- adopted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.
checks and balances
each branch of the national government can check the actions of the other two branches
federal system
privately owned, publicly controlled, central bank of the united states