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MZC1 Chapter 8- Constructivism
Terms in this set (38)
draws heavily on the work of Piaget and Vygotsky.
Learners must individually discover and transform complex information.
What is meant by a "Student-centered and constructivist perspective?
Learners must individually discover and transform complex information. Constructivist theory sees learners as constantly checking new information against old rules and then revising rules when they no longer work. Teachers cannot simply give students knowledge. Students must construct knowledge in their own minds. It is important to teach ways that make information meaningful and relevant to students. Giving students opportunities to discover or apply ideas themselves, and teaching students to be aware of and consciously use their own strategies for learning. You can give students ladders that lead to higher understanding, but the students themselves must climb these ladders." In a student-centered classroom the teacher becomes the "guide on the side" instead of the "sage on the stage," helping students to discover their own meaning instead of lecturing and controlling all classroom activities.
Modern constructivist thought
draws most heavily on Vygotsky's theories
key principles of modern constructivism
Social Learning, Zone of Proximal Development, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Mediated Learning
Children learn, through joint interactions with adults and more capable peers. On cooperative project processes this method not only makes the learning outcome available to all students, but also makes other students' thinking processes available to all. Vygotsky noted that successful problem-solvers talk themselves through difficult problems. in Mr. Dunbar's class, children are exposed to their peers' thinking. In cooperative groups, children can hear this inner speech out loud and learn how successful problem-solvers are thinking through their approaches.
Zone of Proximal Development
A child's zone of proximal development marks the range of tasks the child might not be able to do alone but can do with the assistance of peers or adults.. When children are working together, most of them will be performing on the given tasks at slightly higher or lower cognitive levels but still within each child's zone of proximal development. For example, if a child cannot find the median of a set of numbers by herself but could do so with some assistance from her teacher, then finding medians is probably in her zone of proximal development.
The process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert.
Emphasizes both the social nature of learning and the zone of proximal development. The process learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer. In many occupations, new workers learn their jobs through a process of apprenticeship in which they work closely with experts who provide models, give feedback to less experienced workers, and gradually socialize new workers into the norms and behaviors of the profession. .
Student teaching is a form of apprenticeship
teachers transfer this long-standing and highly effective model of teaching and learning to day-to-day activities in classrooms, by engaging students in complex tasks and helping them through these tasks (as a master electrician would help an apprentice rewire a house) and also by engaging students in varied, cooperative learning groups in which more advanced students help less advanced peers through complex tasks.
Assisted Learning; teacher guides instruction through scaffolding to help students master and internalize skills.
Students should be given complex, difficult, realistic tasks and then be given enough help to achieve these tasks (rather than being taught little bits of knowledge that are expected someday to build up to complex tasks). The term situated learning is used to describe learning that takes place in real-life, authentic tasks. This principle is used to support the classroom use of projects, simulations, explorations in the community, writing for real audiences, and other authentic tasks. This perspective emphasizes learning in depth, rather than learning that is a mile wide and an inch deep
students Top-down Processing
begin with complex problems to solve and then work out or discover (with guidance) the basic skills required.
Students might be asked to write compositions and only later learn about spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
The tasks students begin with are complex, complete, and authentic, meaning that they are not parts or simplifications of the tasks that students are ultimately expected to perform but are the actual tasks.
Students begin with basic skills, then build up to more complex issues.
The traditional, bottom-up approach to teaching Example
the multiplication of two-digit numbers by one-digit numbers (e.g., 4 × 12 = 48) is to teach students a step-by-step procedure to get the right answer. Only after students have mastered this basic skill are they given simple application problems, such as "Sondra saw some pencils that cost 12 cents each. How much money would she need to buy four of them?"
Which teaching emphasizes top-down rather than bottom-up instruction
Constructivist approaches to teaching
Emphasizes social nature of learning. students will more easily discover and comprehend difficult concepts if they can talk with each other about the problems. Use of groups of peers to model appropriate ways of thinking and expose and challenge each other's misconceptions.
Methods of Cooperative Learning
Student-teams achievement divisions (STAD), Cooperative integrated reading and composition (CIRC), Jigsaw, Learning together. Group investigation, Peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS), Cooperative scripting
Cooperative integrated reading and composition (CIRC)
A comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades; students work in four-member cooperative learning teams. 4-member teams
A cooperative learning model in which students are assigned to six-member teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections for each member. students are assigned to six-member teams to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections. For example, a biography might be divided into early life, first accomplishments, major setbacks, later life, and impact on history. Because the only way students can learn sections other than on their own is to listen carefully to their teammates, they are motivated to support and show interest in one another's work. Instead of each student being assigned a unique section, all students read a common text, such as a book chapter.
A cooperative learning model in which students in four- or five-member heterogeneous groups work together on assignments. The groups hand in a single completed assignment and receive praise and rewards based on the group product. This method emphasizes team-building activities before students begin working together and regular discussions within groups about how well they are working together.
A cooperative learning model in which students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion, and cooperative planning and projects, afterward making presentations to the whole class on their findings
Peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS)
A structured cooperative learning method in which students work in pairs taking turns as teacher and learner, using specific metacognitive strategies. Several studies of PALS have found positive effects of this approach in reading
A study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned. Students work in pairs and take turns summarizing sections of the material for one another. While one student summarizes, the other listens and corrects any errors or omissions. Then the two students switch roles, continuing in this manner until they have covered all the material to be learned. A series of studies of this cooperative scripting method has consistently found that students who study this way learn and retain far more than students who summarize on their own or who simply read the material.
Student-teams achievement divisions (STAD)
A cooperative learning method for mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning. Students' quiz scores are compared to their own past averages. STAD and TGT have been used in a wide variety of subjects, from mathematics to language arts to social studies, and have been used from second grade through college. an effective cooperative learning method that consists of a regular cycle of teaching, cooperative study in mixed-ability teams, and quizzes, with recognition or other rewards provided to teams whose members excel.
Guided is best. Constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves. students are encouraged to learn largely on their own through active involvement with concepts and principles, and teachers encourage students to have experiences and conduct experiments that permit them to discover principles for themselves. Good motivation
Students monitor their own learning and adjust learning strategies as needed for improvement. (motivated by learning itself): Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them. Self-regulated learners know how to break complex problems into simpler steps or to test out alternative solutions, they know how and when to skim and how and when to read for deep understanding, and they know how to write to persuade and how to write to inform
Vygotsky - assisted learning. Support that decreases as student progresses through learning.
(Mediated learning): based on Vygotsky's concept of assisted learning. The teacher is the cultural agent who guides instruction so that students will master and internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning. This ability to internalize cultural tools is a function of the learner's age or stage of cognitive development. Once acquired, internal mediators allow greater self-mediated learning.
A small-group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster metacognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension. For example: For the coming weeks we will be working together to improve your ability to understand what you read. Sometimes we are so busy figuring out what the words are that we fail to pay much attention to what the words and sentences mean. We will be learning a way to pay more attention to what we are reading. I will teach you to do the following activities as you read:
Problem-solving and Thinking Skills
Creative Problem Solving and Critical Thinking
Creative Problem Solving
quite different from the analytical step-by-step process. It is enhanced by a relaxed, even playful environment
students should be encouraged to suspend judgment and consider all possibilities before trying out a solution.
Skills needed for Creative Problem Solving
Incubation (Brainstorming), Appropriate Climates, Engaging Problems, Feedback
One important principle is to avoid rushing to a solution; instead, it is useful to pause and reflect on the problem and think through, or incubate, several alternative solutions before choosing a course of action.
part of incubation two or more individuals suggest as many solutions to a problem as they can think of, no matter how seemingly ridiculous
enhanced by a relaxed, playful environment Perhaps even more important, students who are engaging in creative problem solving must feel that their ideas will be accepted.
ANALYSIS careful analysis of the situation might help solve a problem
solving is providing problems that intrigue and engage children
provide students with a great deal of practice on a wide variety of problem types, giving feedback not only on the correctness of their solutions but also on the process by which they arrived at the solutions
1. Distinguishing between verifiable facts and value claims
2. Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, claims, or reasons.
3. Determining the factual accuracy of a statement
4. Determining the credibility of a source
5. Identifying ambiguous claims or arguments
6. Identifying unstated assumptions
7. Detecting bias
8. Identifying logical fallacies
9. Recognizing logical inconsistencies in a line of reasoning
10. Determining the strength of an argument or claim.
Problem-solving skills are taught through a series of steps
means-ends analysis and problem representation. Creative problem solving requires incubation time, suspension of judgment, conducive climates, problem analysis, the application of thinking skills, and feedback. Thinking skills include, for example, planning, classifying, divergent thinking, identifying assumptions, recognizing misleading information, and generating questions. Thinking skills can be taught through programs such as Instrumental Enrichment; creating a culture of thinking in the classroom is another useful technique.
When students have both effective learning strategies and the motivation and persistence to apply these strategies until a job is done to their satisfaction and to have a lifelong motivation to learn. Programs that teach children self-regulated learning strategies have been found to increase students' achievement.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MZC1 Chapter 8 (DW)
MZC1: Chapter 1 (DW)
MZC1: Chapter 2 (DW)
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