Teachings of the Catholic Church- Part 1
Terms in this set (46)
Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
The Catholic concept of revelation lies at the heart
of the Christian Faith
- We believe that God has uniquely revealed
Himself to humanity in the arena of human
- Christians do not believe that we seek God and
then find Him (as, for example, in Buddhism).
- We believe that God chose to reveal Himself to
us. Christianity is a responses to God's selfdisclosure
• The content of revelation is
- the self-revelation of God (CCC §101)
Motivation of Revelation
• The motivation of revelation is
- "God wills that all be saved" - (1 Tim 2:4)
- Why - it is the nature of God, Deus
Caritas Est. "God is love." (1 John 4:8)
- To what end? We are destined to
becomes "partakers of the divine nature"
(2 Peter 1:4)
Fullness of Revelation
The person of Jesus Christ, revealed in
the New Testament
Transmission of Divine Revelation
• The Handing on of Divine Revelation
- Jesus commanded the apostles to preach the
Gospel (Matt 24:16-20)
- In preaching the Gospel, they were to
communicate the gifts of God to all.
• The Apostles chose to hand on the Gospel in
- in writing
"In order that the full and living Gospel
might always be preserved in the Church the
apostles left bishops as their successors.
They gave them their own position of
teaching authority" (CCC 71)
Divine Author of Scripture
"These divinely revealed realities which are
contained and presented in sacred Scripture
have been committed to writing under the
inspiration of the Holy Spirit... they have
God as their author..."
Dei Verbum, 11
The Purpose of Scripture
"Therefore...the books of Scripture must be
acknowledged as teaching firmly, faithfully,
and without error that truth which God
wanted put into sacred writings for the
sake of our salvation"
Dei Verbum, 11
Scripture and Tradition
• The task of interpreting the Word of God
- has been entrusted solely to the Magisterium of the
- i.e., to the Pope and to the bishops in communion with
• This living transmission, accomplished in the Holy
Spirit, is called Sacred Tradition
• "Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture make up a
single sacred deposit of the Word of God" (Dei
Written Tradition: Scripture
• What Christ entrusted to the apostles,
- they in turn handed on by their preaching and
- under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit,
- to all generations,
- until Christ returns in glory (CCC §96)
NT Formation and Transmission
• The Historical Jesus
words are spoken and deeds are performed by Jesus himself
during his lifetime on earth.
• Oral Tradition
based upon the words and deeds of Jesus, traditions and
beliefs about Jesus are developed and passed on by early
• Written Sources
some of the miracles and/or sayings of Jesus are compiled and
recorded in early written documents.
• Written Texts
individual letters, full Gospels, etc., are written with particular
messages for particular situations.
some writings are copied and shared with other Christian
communities throughout the Mediterranean.
certain Christians begin collecting the letters of Paul and
gathering together several different Gospels.
four Gospels, several collections of letters, and a few other
texts are accepted as authoritative scriptures.
biblical texts are translated into ever more ancient and modern
languages: Latin, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, etc.
the meaning of the scriptures is investigated on various
levels: literal, spiritual, historical, social, etc.
communities and individuals use the NT for practical
purposes: liturgical, moral, sacramental, theological, etc.
Sacred Scripture: Inspiration
• "The divinely revealed realities, which are contained
and presented in the text of Sacred Scripture, have
been written down under the inspiration of the Holy
Spirit." (DV 11)
- God is the author of Sacred Scripture because he inspired
its human authors;
- he acts in them and by means of them in full use of their
own faculties and powers
- He thus gives assurance that their writings teach without
error his saving truth
Sacred Scripture: Interpretation
• To interpret Scripture correctly, the reader
must be attentive to what the human
authors truly wanted to affirm, and to what
God wanted to reveal to us by their words
- Content and unity of the whole of Scripture
- Understand within the living tradition of the
- Be attentive to the analogy of faith, that is, the
coherence of the truths of faith among
themselves and within the whole plan of
Sacred Scripture: Inerrancy
• "Scripture firmly, faithfully, and without error
teaches that truth which God, for the sake of
our salvation, wished to see considered to
the Sacred Scriptures." (DV 11; CCC §107)
4 Criteria for Canonicity
- Apostolic Origin - attributed to and/or based on the
preaching/teaching of the first-generation apostles
(or their closest companions)
- Universal Acceptance - acknowledged by all major Christian
communities in the Mediterranean world
(by the end of the fourth century)
- Liturgical Use - read publicly along with the OT when early
Christians gathered for the Lord's Supper
- Consistent Message - containing theological ideas
compatible with other accepted Christian writings
The Stages of Revelation (Detailed)
• God forms a People- The call of Abraham &
Sarah, Moses, David, etc.
- The prophets
• ...in their lives' events
- Exodus to the Promised Land
- The Age of the Kings
- The Babylonian Exile and Return
• Revealing something about God's self
• Yet... the Fullness of Revelation
- The person of Jesus Christ, revealed in
the New Testament
• "In the beginning was the Word...." (John 1:1)
• "In many and various ways God spoke of old to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son." (Hebrews 1:1-2)
• There will be no further public Revelation
- No new public revelation is to be expected before Jesus
returns (Die Verbum 4)
- Yet even if Revelation is already complete, it has not been
made completely explicit; it remains for Christian faith
gradually to grasp its full significance over the course of
• There is "private" revelations
- Not part of the deposit of faith.
- It is not their role to improve or complete Christ's definitive
Revelation, but to help live more fully by it in a certain
period of history.
Handing On the Faith
• People tasked with handing on the Faith
- For this I (Paul) was appointed preacher and apostle (1 Tim 2:7)...I entrust this charge to you, Timothy (1 Tim 1:18)
- ... which was conferred on you through the prophetic word with the imposition of hands of the presbyterate. (1 Tim 4:14)
• Handing on the oral tradition
- Take as your norm the sound words that you heard
from me, in the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus. (2
- And what you heard from me through many witnesses
entrust to faithful people who will have the ability to teach
others as well. (2 Tim 2:2)
• Handing on the Sacred Texts
- But you, remain faithful to what you have learned and
believed, because you know from whom you learned it,
and that from infancy you have known (the) sacred
scriptures [Old Testament], which are capable of giving you wisdom for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. All
scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for refutation, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that one who belongs to God may be
competent, equipped for every good work. (2 Tim 3:14-17)
- theopneustos (Greek, "God breathed")
• divinitus inspirata (Latin, "inspired by God")
The word "theology" comes from two Greek words, theos meaning 'God' and logos meaning 'the word about (or the study of) God' as He is revealed in the Scriptures.
Stages of Revelation
- In the beginning God makes himself known
- The covenant with Noah
- God chooses Abraham
- God forms his people Israel
Relationship between Tradition & Sacred Scripture
* One common source. . .
80 "Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture, then, are bound closely together, and communicate one with the other. For both of them, flowing out from the same divine well-spring, come together in some fashion to form one thing, and move towards the same goal."40 Each of them makes present and fruitful in the Church the mystery of Christ, who promised to remain with his own "always, to the close of the age".41
* Two distinct modes of transmission
81 "Sacred Scripture is the speech of God as it is put down in writing under the breath of the Holy Spirit."42
"And [Holy] Tradition transmits in its entirety the Word of God which has been entrusted to the apostles by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit. It transmits it to the successors of the apostles so that, enlightened by the Spirit of truth, they may faithfully preserve, expound and spread it abroad by their preaching."43
82 As a result the Church, to whom the transmission and interpretation of Revelation is entrusted, "does not derive her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures alone. Both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honored with equal sentiments of devotion and reverence."44
* Apostolic Tradition and ecclesial traditions
83 The Tradition here in question comes from the apostles and hands on what they received from Jesus' teaching and example and what they learned from the Holy Spirit. The first generation of Christians did not yet have a written New Testament, and the New Testament itself demonstrates the process of living Tradition.
Tradition is to be distinguished from the various theological, disciplinary, liturgical or devotional traditions, born in the local churches over time. These are the particular forms, adapted to different places and times, in which the great Tradition is expressed. In the light of Tradition, these traditions can be retained, modified or even abandoned under the guidance of the Church's Magisterium.
In Catholicism, the magisterium is the authority that lays down what is the authentic teaching of the Church. For the Catholic Church, that authority is vested uniquely in the pope and the bishops who are in communion with him.
Canon of Scripture
This complete list is called the canon of Scripture. It includes 46 books for the Old Testament (45 if we count Jeremiah and Lamentations as one) and 27 for the New.
(from the Greek proto meaning first) books are those books of the Bible that were admitted into the canon of the Bible with little or no debate (e.g., the Pentateuch of the Old Testament and the Gospels)
(from the Greek deutero meaning second) books are those books of the Bible that were under discussion for a while until doubts about their canonicity were resolved (e.g. Sirach and Baruch of the Old Testament, and the Johannine epistles of the New Testament).
(from the Greek apokryphos meaning hidden) books have multiple meanings:
◦complimentary meaning - that the sacred books were too exalted for the general public;
◦pejorative meaning - that the orthodoxy of the books were questioned;
◦heretical meaning - that the books were forbidden to be read; and lastly
◦neutral meaning - simply noncanonical books, the meaning the word has today.
(from the Greek meaning false writing) is used for works clearly considered to be false.
is any provocative belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs. A heretic is a proponent of such claims or beliefs.
a prominent heretical movement of the 2nd-century Christian Church, partly of pre-Christian origin. Gnostic doctrine taught that the world was created and ruled by a lesser divinity, the demiurge, and that Christ was an emissary of the remote supreme divine being, esoteric knowledge (gnosis) of whom enabled the redemption of the human spirit.
the sum of truths revealed by God in Scripture and tradition and which the Church (see RULE OF FAITH) presents to us in a brief form in her creeds, subjectively, faith stands for the habit or virtue by which we assent to those truths. It is with this subjective aspect of faith that we are here primarily concerned. Before we proceed to analyze the term faith, certain preliminary notions must be made clear.
Faith & Reason
Faith and reason are like two wings on which the human spirit rises to the contemplation of truth; and God has placed in the human heart the desire to know the truth — in a word, to know himself — so that by knowing and loving God, men and women can come to the fullness of the truth about themselves" (n. 1). With these words Pope John Paul II begins the encyclical, Fides et Ratio. Some 12 years in the making, it is the first encyclical on the relationship between faith and reason since Pope Leo XIII issued Aeterni Patris in 1879.
Transmission of Divine Revelation
God "desires all men and women to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth" through
their knowledge of Christ Jesus. For this to happen, Christ must be proclaimed to all nations and
individuals, so that His revelation may reach the ends of the earth.
First, it was handed on orally by the apostles - by the spoken word of their preaching, by the
example they gave, and by the institutions they established. In these ways they handed on what
they themselves had received - whether from the lips of Christ, from his way of life and his works,
and from what they learned at the prompting of the Holy Spirit."
Second, the apostles and other men associated with the apostles, under the inspiration of the Holy
Spirit, handed it on by committing God's message of salvation to writing," and speaks to us evernew
in Holy Scripture.
Relationship between Scripture & Tradition
According to one Catholic view, Scripture and Tradition are two sources of revelation. Some divine truths are found in the Bible, while others are found in Tradition. This "two source" model has a long history, but it also has some difficulties. One is that there is considerable overlap between the two sources.
Tradition, Scripture and Magisterium
The Threefold Key To Christian Unity: The fullness of God's works / words are brought together as a whole through these three.
The Apostolic Tradition
passed down from the apostils
Divine Inspiration is the belief that God gave the men who penned the Bible, the very words to write. Being penned by over 40 different authors from different walks of life, over an estimated period of 1,500 years, the only way the Bible can possibly make sense and fit so nicely together is Divine Inspiration. (Connection between faith & history)
Study of the person and work of Jesus Christ
Study of the Church
Study of Human Salvation
Study of the end of times
What is the relationship between faith and science?
Faith is below science but below opinion,"
authoritative in all matters relating to the natural world.
authoritative in all matters relating to spiritual truth, salvation, ethics, morality and Christian living.
Difference between Catholic Bible & Protestant
Protestant leaders decided to organize the Old Testament material according to the official canon of Judaism rather than the Septuagint. They moved the Old Testament material which was not in the Jewish canon into a separate section of the Bible called the Apocrypha. So, Protestant Bibles then included all the same material as the earlier Bible, but it was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the Apocrypha. Protestant Bibles included the Apocrypha until the mid 1800s, and the King James Version was originally published with the Apocrypha. However, the Apocrypha was considered less important, and Bible publishers eventually dropped it from most Protestant editions. The books of the Apocrypha are also known as the deuterocanonical books.
When the "Will" is properly aligned with God.
Faith does not equal full understand.
Gift from God.
A yes to the gospel
Gift from the Holy Spirit
Deposit of Faith
Apostles were to bear witness to the life of Jesus.
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