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Praxis II: Multiple Subjects
Terms in this set (169)
During this stage of literacy, children are exposed to the structure or syntax of language & encouraged to predict what text is about
concept of print
"understand print contains meaning, directionality, concept of a word, letter knowlege, phoenomic awareness, literacy language (author, title, etc)"
Giving sounds for an individual letter and writing letters in response to their individual sounds
reading and recognizing familiar and common words
Reading by decoding the phonetic structure of letter strings; reading by "sounding out"
An understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.
The relationship between a letter and the sound it represents.
the ability to apply your knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written words.
The division of words into syllables
stanzas made up of either seven or eight or ten lines, and ends with a short four or five line stanza. Each stanza ends with the same line, which is called 'a refrain'.
Perhaps the most popular type of poetry used, the couplet has stanzas made up of two lines which rhyme with each other.
This kind of poem has four lines in a stanza, of which the second and fourth lines rhyme with each other and have a similar syllable structure.
This is another unique type of poetry style. As the name suggests, it is made up of five lines. The first line is just one word, which is often the title of the poem. The second line has two words which describe the first line. The third line has three words, and is mostly the action part of the poem. The fourth line is four words describing the feelings. And the fifth line, again, has just one word which is the title of the poem.
This is a very complicated style of writing poetry, but was often used by classical poets. This style uses the syllable stresses to create the musical sound. There is one short sounding syllable followed by one long sounding syllable, at the end of each of the five stanzas in a row.
This type of poem contains fourteen lines and follows conventional structures of rhyme.
This is again a very structured method of writing poetry. This has its origins in Japan. This method does not use rhyme. There are three lines of five, seven and five syllables each. The poem must essentially talk about some aspect of Nature.
This is a method of writing poetry, which does not essentially follow any structure or style. There is no fixed meter and no structure regarding rhyme and lines in each stanza. This kind of poetry is quite popular with modern poets.
This poem is usually a long and descriptive one which tells a story. Epics usually are longer than most poems and may even take up a book. Example: Homer's 'Iliad'.
This is a very witty and often vulgar kind of a poem, which is quite short. This poem has five lines in a stanza. The first, second and fifth line have the same metrical structure and they rhyme with each other. They contain seven to ten syllables each. The second and fourth lines have the same metrical structure and rhyme with each other. These contain five to seven syllables.
A sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clause
Contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon.
A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
at least one dependent clause and two or more independent clauses
a type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform.
Tells a story, fiction or nonfiction, of something that happened. EXAMPLE: biography, memior, etc.
writing in which the author wants to convince readers to agree with the author's opinions. To accomplish this, the writer must first make the issues clear to the reader and then provide incidents and facts to support his or her opinion. Examples: campaign speeches, debates, etc.
writing that paints a picture of a person, place, thing, or idea
A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination.
This was the term used, throughout the 1840s, to describe Americans' belief that they were destined by God to spread their beliefs across the continent. This sense of duty created a sense of unity among the nation and stimulated westward expansion. The term itself was coined by John O'Sullivan in an 1845 magazine article. The concept justified westward expansion in all its forms and ramifications, including the Mexican War, the persecution of the Indians, and other such ethnocentric acts.
Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, right to Peaceful assembly, and to petition the Government
right to bear arms: a well regulated militia being necessary to secure a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed
Government cannot house soldiers on private homes without given permission from owner, in a time of peace
search and seisure ( there has to be a warrant in order to search someones property) ( a judge must order the warrant)
Criminal Proceedings; Due Process; Eminent Domain; Double Jeopardy; Protection from Self incrimination
Criminal Proceedings; Must inform defendant of charge/s; Right to Attorney; Right to fair impartial jury
Civil Trial by Jury
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Citizens entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution
Asserts that powers not delegated to the national government or denied to the states are reserved to the states.
Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, and New Hampshire.
The branch of economics that focuses on how human behavior affects the conduct of affairs within narrowly defined units, such as individual households or business firms.
analyses the economy as a whole. For example it considers the overall numbers employed in an economy. It deals therefore with topics such as inflation, unemployment, economic growth and international trade.
causes of WWI
1. A system of alliances divide Europe into two parts
2. Nationalism was very prevalent in the countries of Europe (especially Serbia)
3. Militarism or reliance on military strength
4. Imperialism and the conquering of countries in Asia, South America, and Africa
5. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by the Black Hand
causes of WWII
1) Germany was bitter after WWI because it had to pay for the damage they caused, so they became aggressive
2) Global economic depression,
3) rise of militarism and facism,
4) Japanese aggeression in Asia and the Pacific
causes of american revolution
1. Proclamation of 1763 stops colonists from moving west 2. Parliament taxes the colonies to pay British war debts
3. Intolerable Acts set up harsh rule in Massachusetts
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
effect of american revolution
establishment of confederation government
A system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions
the power to authoritatively allocate values is vested in a single person
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.
A form of government in which one person, usually a member of a royal family or a royal designate, exercises supreme authority.
A form of government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite.
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
A government controlled by religious leaders
A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
A document written by the Pilgrims establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government.
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
articles of confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
A group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights. "I smell a rat!"
a climate in which it is usually warm all year
a climate in which the yearly precipitation is less than the potential loss of water by evaporation
A type of climate found in areas that are farther from the equator than the tropics, where there are changing seasons and mild weather that is neither too hot or too cold
The climate of the centers of continents, with cold winters and warm or hot summers
A type of climate found in the areas around the north and south pole, where the weather is cold.
a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions.
Biomes which are also terrestrial, but are heavily influenced by altitude.
A scrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers.
A biome with four seasons, plants shed leaves in the fall and grow new ones in the spring.
A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely
A biome dominated by grasses and associated herbaceous plants
A tropical forest, usually of tall, densely growing, broad-leaved evergreen trees in an area of high annual rainfall.
A tropical grassland biome with scattered individual trees, large herbivores, and three distinct seasons based primarily on rainfall, maintained by occasional fires and drought.
Biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
A biome at the northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes, characterized by dwarf woody shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens.
A group of islands
An indentation of a shoreline larger than a cove but smaller than a gulf
A human made waterway
A body of water joining two larger bodies of water.
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
an arm of a sea or ocean partly enclosed by land
A body of land completely surrounded by water
A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land
A landform with high elevation and high relief.
A large mass of land projecting into a body of water.
an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.
A large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean.
A body of salt water that is partly enclosed by land.
An area of low land between hills or mountains
Located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Divided into two zones; Assyria (north of present day Baghdad); Babylonia; Politically fragmented - contained several individual city-states; Babylonian dominance; Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750) most famous Babylonian king; Code of Hammurabi - collection of laws governing the kingdom.; One of the first set of codified laws
Egyptian civilization emerged in northern Africa along the Nile River by about 3000 B.C.E. It benefited from trade and influences from Mesopotamia, but it also produced its own distinct social structures and cultural expressions. Unlike Mesopotamia, Egyptian civilization featured very durable and centralized institutions. Mathematical achievements and impressive architectural structures also characterized Egyptian civilization.
huang he valley civilization
Huang He river; north China plain; loess soil; floods uncontrollably; mandate of heaven; ; fine pottery; bone tools; first in China to be dated with written records; oracle bones; metal casting skills; patriarchal society
indus valley civilization
3rd millennium BC, Elaborately planned cities, standardized measures, irrigated agriculture, written language, no temples kings etc., had a lot of land, no political hierarchy, was abandoned because of mass deforestation, low crop yields, famine, environmental deterioration, etc. their influence continued even to this day (i.e. yoga). Important because it shows how we developed in our cities and economy.
Built farming settlements along the Huang He that soon grew in to China's first cities...had flood-control & irrigation projects taking place...Farm surpluses allowed cities to grow...built elaborate palaces & tombs...surrounded cities with long walls for protection...their social class was divided between nobles & peasants...made magnificent bronze weapons
(800-300) Valued education, human effort and celebrated achievement. Sculpting, literature and math. Polytheistic. small cities states. No centralize government. Polis; fortified cities. Trade by sailing wine for grain. Sparta more military Athens, first democratic govt. Slavery practiced.
(509-476) Military techniques: conquered, not oppressed, divided army into leagues. Art, architecture, philosophic, engineering, polytheism. Division between aristocrats and plebeians. Free farmers. Middle class-merchants grew. Patriarchal. Slavery Two eras; Autocratic's shared power with chosen senates. Empire: Non-hereditary emperor, chosen by senate. Developed 12 tables Roman Laws
Caste system; developed Hindu religion; developed principle of zero in math; one of the first to navigate and sail the oceans and seas
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
agreements between nations to aid and protect one another
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
An economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit.
supply and demand
economic model where consumers demand goods and the supply is met by producers of goods.
A person's incentive to work to gain something for himself or herself(that is to make money).
An economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices.
a policy that allowed business to operate with little or no government interference
An economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
Economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. Commonly used in which state or government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income.
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.
An economy that has no interactions in trade or finance with other countries.
an economy that interacts freely with other economies around the world
you only make enough to survive
balance of trade
Importing as many goods as you export
A rise in the general level of prices
Plates smash into each other
2 tectonic plates move apart characterized move apart characterized by a mid-ocean ridge or contenintal rift valley
transform plate tectonics
Plates slide past eachother
A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon.
levels of atmosphere
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
The continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
5.6 billion years ago, no life except algae
the part of geologic time 570-245 million years ago ; invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, ferns, and cone-bearing trees were dominant
middle life (245-144 million years ago); rise of mammals and dinosaurs; the rise of birds; extinction of dinosaurs, rise of flowering plants
(The "Age of Mammals") from 65 million years ago to today. It saw the emergence of familiar life forms, humans, the modern look of the continents, and a cooling climate.
phases of the moon
new, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent
rocky metallic objects that orbit the sun but are too small to be considered planets
Chunks of rock or dust from space.
An object from space which has survived entry to Earth's atmosphere and is now lying on the ground
Are the the streaks of light associated with burning of meteoroids as they arrive in earth's atmosphere from space.
An object composed of rocky material, ice and gas; comes from the Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud.
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
Organelles that package cellular materials and transport them within the cell or out of the cell.
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
Absorbs water and minerals from the ground. Anchors plant in ground.
Carry substances between roots and leaves; provide support for plant; holds leaves up to sunlight
Function as the site of photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration in plants.
Are responsible for the sexual reproduction
contains organisms that are one-celled, have cell walls, and have no nucleus
eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals: protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae
Many-celled, most connot move, plant-like, but cannot make their own food, absorb food from other living things, reproduce with spores
complex, multicellular organisms that are usually green and make their own food
The kingdom that consists of multicellular organisms that can move from one place to another. Characteristics of the kingdom: multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic
levels of taxonomy
a grouping system that divides organisms into 6 major categories
A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy.
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
Are organisms that use the Sun's energy to make their own food (all plants).
An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
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