53 terms

AP Environmental Science- Human Population

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total fertility rate
The average number of children born to a woman in a her lifetime in a demographic group. In US- 2.2, Japan- 1.4, Afghanistan- 5
introduced species
a species living outside of its native range, as a result of human activity
underdeveloped country
a country with a low industrial base (low GDP)
GDP (gross domestic product)
the money's worth of goods and services produced in a country
GNH (gross national happiness)
the calculated happiness produced in a country, to demonstrate resistance against the Western model of development
transitional country
countries newly switching to market-based economies after being under soviet rule. Asia. South America. Eastern Europe.
Industrial country
A country with a solid economic foundation, as indicated by GDP. (Australia, US, UK, Italy, Germany, France, Japan, South Korea)
Post-Industrial Country
A country which is in the most advanced stage of development, where most jobs are found in knowledge-based services and less on manufacturing goods. US. UK, Germany, France. Japan
High Birth Rate, High Death Rate
Preindustrial - stable growth
Low Birth Rate, Low Death Rate
Industrial - stable growth
High Birth Rate, Low Death Rate
Transitional - expanding population
Low Birth Rate, Super Low Death Rate
Post-industrial - shrinking population
Environmental impact of Population Growth
Increased demand of natural resources
Doubling Time
The amount of years it takes for a population to double. Divide 70 by growth rate to get DT. Is High for Industrial countries (70 for US), and Low for developing nations
One Child Policy
Official policy launched by China in 1979 to induce married couples to have only one child in an effort to control population growth, some exceptions. Recently revoked
Demography
The statistical study of populations
IPAT model
Scale representing the impact on the environment from population, affluence, and technology. Different among countries
Life expectancy
the average number of years an individual can be expected to live
Population Pyramids
A graph that shows gender and age, the wider the graph the more the population is growing.
crude birth rate
annual number of births per 1000 people/ 1 year
crude death rate
annual number of deaths per 1000 people/ 1 year
birth rate
births/time
death rate
deaths/time
growth rate
population change / original population
population change
(births + immigrants) - (deaths + emigrants)
Replacement- Level Growth
Number of children a couple must have to replace themselves. Represents stable growth. Is different for each country based on infant mortality, but for industrial countries it is slightly higher than 2.
Family Planning
Programs allowing women to plan number and spacing of children.
Environmental Refugees
Moving due to natural disaster. Will increase with climate change.
Migration
Movement of populations into or out of an area
Immigration
Movement into an area
Emigration
Movement out of an area
Factors that determine quality of life
Infant mortality and life expectancy
Infant mortality
The number of deaths per 1000 births, of children under the age of 1 year
Percentage of wealth controlled by developing countries
5%
Living sustainably
Earth is an interconnected system. Use resources wiselt
Economic growth
Improvement to living standards based on amount of sales
Why does population growth pose a problem
Wasteful resource use, ecological ignorance
Why does poverty pose an environmental problem
Survival culture --> buy cheap goods, regardless of impact to environmental.
Affluence
the addiction to wasteful resource use. Buying for fun.
Population growth in transitional countries⁷
Momentum Idea that many people under 15 will cause population to rise quickly
Goals of the UN Conference on Population and Development
try to stabilize population at 7.8 billion by 2025
universal access to family planning and reproductive policies
equitable relations between men and women
access to education, especially for girls
involves men in child rearing and family planning
eradiate poverty
reduce and eliminate unsustainable reproduction and consumption
Factors that may increase birth rates and TFR
low education
high numbers of children in labor force
low urbanization
low cost of raising/educating children
high infant mortality
low average age at marriage
low public and private pension
availability of legal abortion
low availability of brith control
certain factors of religion tradition and culture
Current Growth Rate
1.35%
fecundity
how scientifically fertile a population is (how many eggs)
generation time
average time between generations (average age of first child for a female in a family)
J Curve
Exponential growth
S Curve
Curve representing initial biotic potential and then carrying capacity. This is logistic growth
density dependent
Variables that increase in effect with high-density populations ( IE- spread of disease)
r-strategists
High birth rates, high mortality rates -- as describing insects and rodents
k-strategists
low birth rates, low mortality rates -- as describing mammals
biotic potential
the amount of resources available to support a population
carrying capacity
the limit to resources in an area, causes growth rate to slow logistically.
Why poverty leads to overpopulation
More children can work to make money for the family. Many of the most impoverished countries also lack basic education around birth control.
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