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Terms in this set (23)
a trait gained by natural selection that enhances the ability of an organism to survive or reproduce in a particular environment.
alternative versions of genes that differ in nucleotide sequence. Different alleles may produce differences in character expression (i.e., phenotypic differences).
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the molecule of inheritance in most organisms; a double-stranded helical molecule consisting of long sequences of four nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
the greater survival and reproduction of organisms with some traits compared with organisms that do not have those traits.
change over time in the genetic composition of species; a result of mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow.
the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) to a situation where only one of the alleles remains
a section of a DNA strand (i.e., a sequence of nucleotides) that determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein for which it codes.
the movement of genes among populations due to migration and interbreeding.
random changes in allele or genotype frequencies within a population.
the set of genes that an organism carries. Genotype can also refer to the set of alleles for a particular gene.
the genetic basis for resemblance between parents and offspring.
having different alleles for a given gene. An individual can be
heterozygous for some genes and homozygous for others.
in a population, the average proportion of genes for which a randomly chosen individual is heterozygous.
having two copies of the same allele for a given gene. An individual can be homozygous for some genes and heterozygous for others. mean: the arithmetic average of a set of values.
evolution across geologic timescales (generally millions of years), involving groups of species.
evolution within a population, over shorter timescales than those examined in macroevolution.
a change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene in an individual.
one of several mechanisms that may drive evolution. Individuals that have traits that are favorable within their environment survive and reproduce more than those with less favorable traits, leading to the spread of those favorable traits.
one of adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G), the molecular building block of DNA.
an assertion that there is no relationship among observations, that the relationship due to chance, or that an experimental treatment has no significant effect. Usually contrasted with an alternative hypothesis that some mechanism produced the pattern, that a particular mechanism has acted, or that a treatment does have an effect.
the physical or morphological expression of a genotype in a given environment.
a group of interbreeding individuals that belong to the same species and occupy a similar geographic area.
an approach to understanding microevolution that combines mathematical theory and experimental data to understand the effects of mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection on genes within and among populations
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