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what are the spokes in saturn's rings?
particles of dust suspended above the rings by magnetic forces
why do asteroids and comets differ in composition
asteroids formed inside the frost line, while comets formed outside
how do astronomers think saturn generates its interal heat
by raining dense helium droplets from higher to lower altitudes, resembling the process of differentiation
what is the most important factor that determines the thickness, and therefore strength, of the lithosphere
why was the shoemaker levy 9 impact so important to astronomers
it dredged up material that gave us our first direct look at jupiter's interior composition
what is a meteroite
a fragment of an asteroid from the solar system that has fallen to earth's surface
the three principal sources of interal heat of terrestrial planets are
accretion, differentiation, and radioactivity
how do the jovian planet interiors differ
all have cores of about the same mass, but differ in the amount of surrounding hydrogen and helium
the large gaps in the asteroid belt (often called kirkwood gaps) are caused by
orbital resonances with jupiter
which planet has the highest average surface temperature, and why?
venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere
the energy in the atmosphere of most of the jovian planets comes___________
both the sun and their interiors, in roughly equal proportions
which of the following best describes the internal layering of jupiter, from the center outward?
core of rock, metal, and hydrogen compounds; thick layer of metallic hydrogen; layer of liquid hydrogen; layer of gaseous hydrogen; cloud layer
the proper order of the layers of a generic atmosphere from lowest altitude to highest is
troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
why is neptune denser than saturn
it has different composition than saturn, including a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rocks
why are there no impact craters on the surface of Io?
io did have impact craters but they have all been buried in lava flows
what is the oort cloud
it is not really a cloud at all, but rather refers to the trillion or so comets thought to orbit the sun at great differences
how do astronomers think jupiter generates its internal heat
by contracting, changing gravitational potential energy into thermal energy
what do meteorites reveal about the solar system
they reveal that the age of the solar system is approximately 4.6 billion years
which of the following best describes convection
it is the process in which warm material expands and rises while cool material contracts and falls
why is saturn almost as big as Jupiter, despite its smaller mass
jupiter's greater mass compresses it more, thus increasing its density
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