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which of the following show evidence of ancient river beds


which of the following planets has the least substantial atmosphere


what are the spokes in saturn's rings?

particles of dust suspended above the rings by magnetic forces

why do asteroids and comets differ in composition

asteroids formed inside the frost line, while comets formed outside

which planet, other than earth, has visible water ice on it


an icy leftover planetesimal orbiting the sun is

a comet

planetary rings are

all of the above

how do astronomers think saturn generates its interal heat

by raining dense helium droplets from higher to lower altitudes, resembling the process of differentiation

how thick are saturn's rings from top to bottom

a few tens of meters

what is the exosphere

the highest layer in the atmosphere

the most metal-rich terrestrial planet is


the ionosphere is a layer of ionized gas that is

within the thermosphere

what is the most important factor that determines the thickness, and therefore strength, of the lithosphere

internal temperature

a rocky leftover planetesimal orbiting the sun is

an asteroid

why was the shoemaker levy 9 impact so important to astronomers

it dredged up material that gave us our first direct look at jupiter's interior composition

what is a meteroite

a fragment of an asteroid from the solar system that has fallen to earth's surface

the three principal sources of interal heat of terrestrial planets are

accretion, differentiation, and radioactivity

which of the following worlds has the most substantial atmosphere


which of the following planets has a stratosphere


what are greenhouse gases

gases that absorb infrared light

how do the jovian planet interiors differ

all have cores of about the same mass, but differ in the amount of surrounding hydrogen and helium

the large gaps in the asteroid belt (often called kirkwood gaps) are caused by

orbital resonances with jupiter

which planet has the highest average surface temperature, and why?

venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere

most meteorites are

rocky and primitive

the energy in the atmosphere of most of the jovian planets comes___________

both the sun and their interiors, in roughly equal proportions

which of the following best describes the internal layering of jupiter, from the center outward?

core of rock, metal, and hydrogen compounds; thick layer of metallic hydrogen; layer of liquid hydrogen; layer of gaseous hydrogen; cloud layer

what are the main constituents of the jovian planets

hydrogen and helium

the proper order of the layers of a generic atmosphere from lowest altitude to highest is

troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere, exosphere

x rays from the sun's corona

are absorbed in earth's thermosphere

olympus mons is a

shield volcano on mars

which is the densest planet in the solar system


why is neptune denser than saturn

it has different composition than saturn, including a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rocks

UV light is absorbed in the


why are there no impact craters on the surface of Io?

io did have impact craters but they have all been buried in lava flows

what is the stratosphere

the part of the atmosphere that absorbs ultraviolet

what is the thermosphere

the part of the atmosphere that absorbs x rays

what is the oort cloud

it is not really a cloud at all, but rather refers to the trillion or so comets thought to orbit the sun at great differences

how do astronomers think jupiter generates its internal heat

by contracting, changing gravitational potential energy into thermal energy

what do meteorites reveal about the solar system

they reveal that the age of the solar system is approximately 4.6 billion years

the planet closest in size to earth is


where does nuclear fusion occur in the sun

in its core

which of the jovian planets have rings

all of the above

the main process by which heat flows upward thru the lithosphere is


what is jupiter's great red spot

a long-lived high pressure storm

the age of the solar system can be established by radioactive dating of

the oldest meteorites

volcanism is more likely on a planet that

has high internal temperatures

which of the following best describes convection

it is the process in which warm material expands and rises while cool material contracts and falls

why is saturn almost as big as Jupiter, despite its smaller mass

jupiter's greater mass compresses it more, thus increasing its density


a moderately large object that orbits a star; it shines by reflected light


a relatively small and rocky object that orbits a star

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