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91 terms

AP biology 1st semester exam

what are the two major processes that drive an ecosystem?
nutrient cycling and energy flow
what are the four nutrient cycles?
water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
is the water cycle global or local, what occurs in it (3 processes) and what is its reservoir
global; evaporation, precipitation, transpiration; ocean and atmosphere are reservoirs
follow the water cycle
water vapor goes into the clouds and wind moves the clouds from over the ocean to over land and the clouds release precipitation on land. precipitation makes surface water that goes through the soil and runs off back into the ocean. then plants transpire and let off water into the atmosphere
is the carbon cycle global or local, what occurs in it (2 processes) and what is its reservoir
global; photosynthesis, respiration; atmosphere is reservoir
follow the carbon cycle
CO2 is present in the atmosphere. the co2 is used by plants for photosynthesis. plants give off co2 in respiration. consumers eat the plants and give off co2 in the atmosphere. consumers create detritus and detritivores give off co2 in respiration. fossil fuels and wood burn gives off co2 in the atmosphere too.
is the nitrogen cycle global or local and what is its reservoir
global and atmosphere is reservoir
follow the nitrogen cycle
nitrogen fixing bacteria (on roots or soil) turn nitrogen gas from the atmosphere to ammonia. nitrifying bacteria turns ammonia to nitrate which can be used by plants or put back into the atmosphere by denitrifying bacteria. consumers can also eat the plants and decompose into ammonia
is the phosphorus cycle local or global and what is the reservoir
local and rocks are reservoir
follow the phosphorus cycle
weathering of rocks puts inorganic phosphate into the soil and plants absorb it from the soil and convert it into organic. consumers eat organic phosphates from plants and the phosphates are returned to the soil by animal excretion. some phosphates drain into the sea and become new rocks
what is energy flow
the passage of energy throughout the components of the ecosystem
follow the energy cycle
energy enters as sunlight and plants convert the light energy to chemical energy. then animals consume that energy and detritivores decompose plants and animals. every use of energy results in the release of heat energy
what are the trophic levels (6) in order
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, quaternary consumers, and detritivores
what do producers do and what is an example
support all other levels, use photosynthesis, and plants in land and phytoplankton in water
what do primary consumers do and what are examples
herbivores- eat plants, algae, and phytoplankton and examples are insects, zebra, giraffe, rabbit, seed and fruit birds, zooplankton, and shrimp
what do secondary consumers do and what are examples
carnivores eat consumers and examples are small mammals, mouse, small birds, frogs, spiders, and small fish
what do tertiary consumers do and what are examples
eat secondary consumers and snakes, owls, bears
what do quaternary consumers do and what are examples
eat tertiary and secondary consumers and hawks and killer whales
what do detritivores do
it includes all trophic levels (eat detritus)
what is biomass
the amount of living organic material in an ecosystem
what is primary production
the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy from ecosystems producers for a given area and during a given time period
what percent of energy produces continues to the next level
what are the 11 biomes
tropical forest, savanna, desert, chaparral, temperate grassland, broadleaf forest, tiaga, tundra, estuary, coral reef, ocean
what is the chemical basis of life
what are four life sustaining properties of water
cohesiveness, temperature moderation, density, solvent
how is cohesiveness a life sustaining property of water
trees use it to move water from roots to leaves and it creates surface tension so it is more difficult to break the surface of a liquid by hydrogen bonds
how is temperature moderation a life sustaining property of water
water can resist temperature change in mid coastal climates and slow evaporation and evaporative cooling are ways that it is done
how is the density of water a life sustaining property
water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid because ice expands
how is being a solvent a life sustaing property of water
best solvent- provides versatility
is water polar or nonpolar and why
polar because the O is slightly negative and the H2 is slightly positive creating unequal charges
what does polar mean and is it hydrophilic or hydrophobic
uneven distribution of electrons and it is hydrophilic
what does non-polar mean and is it hydrophilic or hydrophobic
even distribution of electrons and it is hydrophobic
what are the four types of protein structures
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
what is the primary structure of protein
amino acid chain
what is the secondary structure of protein
polypeptide coil or folded and it creates alpha helix or pleated sheet and is maintained by hydrogen bonds
what is the tertiary structure of protein
overall 3D shape of a polypeptide (one unit) and it is globular or fibrous and can be both alpha helix and pleated
what is the quaternary structure of protein
multiple polypeptide units
what limits cell size
must have enough surface area to obtain enough oxygen and nutrients and dispose of waste
membrane surface area must support what?
volume of the cell
what does the nucleolus do
ribosomes are born here
what does the nucleus do
DNA/ RNA synthesis, controls cell activities
what does the nuclear envelope do
a double membrane that controls what enters and leaves the nucleus
what do ribosomes do
actual structure that makes proteins
what does the rough ER do
main function is to make more membrane
what does the smooth ER do
series of interconnected tubules that synthesizes lipids
what does the golgi apparatus do
marks and sorts molecules into different batches for different destinations
what do lysosomes do
processes drugs, destroys bacterial cells, recycles old cell parts (no webbed toes)
what do peroxisomes
contain hydrolytic enzymes
what does the vacuole do
storage of water, digestion of nutrients
what do chloroplasts do
converts energy of sun into glucose (photosynthesis)
what does mitochondria do
converts food into chemical energy of ATP
what does cilia do
short hair-like appendages line respiratory tract
what does flagella do
long whip-like structure to propel
what do microtubules do
form the cilia and flagella
what does the cell wall do
in plant cells only and it maintaines the shape and support of the cell
what does the cytoplasm do
fluid filled region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
what does the centriole do
forms spindle during mitisos
what do chromosomes do
can be seen when chromatin condenses
what does chromatin do
nuclear DNA attached to proteins form these long thread-like fibers
what three things do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common
plasma membrane, DNA, and ribosomes
what four things do prokaryotic cells that eukaryotic cells dont have
bacteria and archaea, DNA in nucleioid, capsule protects cell surface, and pili are projections for attachment
what three things do eukaryotic cells have that prokaryotic cells dont
membrane enclosed nucleus, highly developed with organelles, and they are protists, fungi, plants, and animals
what are the ways of passive movement through the cell membrane
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and filtration
what are the ways of active movement through the cell membrane
active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis
what does a passive method need
no cell energy required
what does an active method need
cell energy required
what is diffusion
high to low concentration
what is osmosis
diffusion of water, high to low concentration
what id facilitated diffusion
goes in a specific protein channel
what is filtration
forced across membrane (like capillaries with blood)
what is active transport
protein channel pumps particles from low to high concentraion
what is endocytosis
bring into cell
what is exocytosis
take out of cell
what is phagocytosis
exocytosis of a solid
what is pinocytosis
exocytosis of a liquid
what is the function of the kidney
to filter urea, salt, and sugar out of the blood through nephrons
what is reabsorption in the kidneys
water, valuable solutes like glucose, salt, amino acids are returned to the blood
what is secretion in the kidneys
from blood to filtrate excess of H+, drugs, and toxins
what is the medulla of the kidney
the inner part
what is the cortex of the kidney
the outer part
what does the glomerulus do
ball of capillaries enclosed by bowman's capsule and creates the blood filtering unit. blood pressure forces water and solutes from blood across the wall of bowman's capsule and into nephron tubule which creates filtrate. blood cells and plasma proteins stay behind
what is bowman's capsule
cup shaped swelling around glomerulus and receives blood and collects filtrate
what does the proximal tubule do
where nutrients, CaCl, water, and HCO3 are reabsorbed and drugs and toxins and H+ ions are secreted
what does the loop of henle do
water reabsorption and concentrates the filtrate between the proximal and distal tubule and where water and nacl are reabsorbed two times, one actively and one passively
what does the distal tubule do
helps refine filtrate and empty into collecting duct and where nacl, water and hco3 are reabsorbed and K+ and H+ are secreted
what does the collecting duct do
concentrates urine while moving urine into renal pelvis then to ureter and where nacl, a little urea, and water are reabsorbed
what is activation energy
energy barrier that must be overcome before a chemical reaction can begin
what do enzymes do
speeds up reaction rate by lowering the activation energy necessary to start the reaction
what is substrate
a specific reactant that an enzyme acts upon
what is an active site
where a substrate fits into the enzyme (a pocket or groove on enzyme surface)
what is induced fit
a substrate and active site change shape to embrace substrate and catalyze the reaction