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what are the two major processes that drive an ecosystem?

nutrient cycling and energy flow

what are the four nutrient cycles?

water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus

is the water cycle global or local, what occurs in it (3 processes) and what is its reservoir

global; evaporation, precipitation, transpiration; ocean and atmosphere are reservoirs

follow the water cycle

water vapor goes into the clouds and wind moves the clouds from over the ocean to over land and the clouds release precipitation on land. precipitation makes surface water that goes through the soil and runs off back into the ocean. then plants transpire and let off water into the atmosphere

is the carbon cycle global or local, what occurs in it (2 processes) and what is its reservoir

global; photosynthesis, respiration; atmosphere is reservoir

follow the carbon cycle

CO2 is present in the atmosphere. the co2 is used by plants for photosynthesis. plants give off co2 in respiration. consumers eat the plants and give off co2 in the atmosphere. consumers create detritus and detritivores give off co2 in respiration. fossil fuels and wood burn gives off co2 in the atmosphere too.

is the nitrogen cycle global or local and what is its reservoir

global and atmosphere is reservoir

follow the nitrogen cycle

nitrogen fixing bacteria (on roots or soil) turn nitrogen gas from the atmosphere to ammonia. nitrifying bacteria turns ammonia to nitrate which can be used by plants or put back into the atmosphere by denitrifying bacteria. consumers can also eat the plants and decompose into ammonia

is the phosphorus cycle local or global and what is the reservoir

local and rocks are reservoir

follow the phosphorus cycle

weathering of rocks puts inorganic phosphate into the soil and plants absorb it from the soil and convert it into organic. consumers eat organic phosphates from plants and the phosphates are returned to the soil by animal excretion. some phosphates drain into the sea and become new rocks

what is energy flow

the passage of energy throughout the components of the ecosystem

follow the energy cycle

energy enters as sunlight and plants convert the light energy to chemical energy. then animals consume that energy and detritivores decompose plants and animals. every use of energy results in the release of heat energy

what are the trophic levels (6) in order

producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, quaternary consumers, and detritivores

what do producers do and what is an example

support all other levels, use photosynthesis, and plants in land and phytoplankton in water

what do primary consumers do and what are examples

herbivores- eat plants, algae, and phytoplankton and examples are insects, zebra, giraffe, rabbit, seed and fruit birds, zooplankton, and shrimp

what do secondary consumers do and what are examples

carnivores eat consumers and examples are small mammals, mouse, small birds, frogs, spiders, and small fish

what do tertiary consumers do and what are examples

eat secondary consumers and snakes, owls, bears

what do quaternary consumers do and what are examples

eat tertiary and secondary consumers and hawks and killer whales

what do detritivores do

it includes all trophic levels (eat detritus)

what is biomass

the amount of living organic material in an ecosystem

what is primary production

the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy from ecosystems producers for a given area and during a given time period

what percent of energy produces continues to the next level


what are the 11 biomes

tropical forest, savanna, desert, chaparral, temperate grassland, broadleaf forest, tiaga, tundra, estuary, coral reef, ocean

what is the chemical basis of life


what are four life sustaining properties of water

cohesiveness, temperature moderation, density, solvent

how is cohesiveness a life sustaining property of water

trees use it to move water from roots to leaves and it creates surface tension so it is more difficult to break the surface of a liquid by hydrogen bonds

how is temperature moderation a life sustaining property of water

water can resist temperature change in mid coastal climates and slow evaporation and evaporative cooling are ways that it is done

how is the density of water a life sustaining property

water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid because ice expands

how is being a solvent a life sustaing property of water

best solvent- provides versatility

is water polar or nonpolar and why

polar because the O is slightly negative and the H2 is slightly positive creating unequal charges

what does polar mean and is it hydrophilic or hydrophobic

uneven distribution of electrons and it is hydrophilic

what does non-polar mean and is it hydrophilic or hydrophobic

even distribution of electrons and it is hydrophobic

what are the four types of protein structures

primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary

what is the primary structure of protein

amino acid chain

what is the secondary structure of protein

polypeptide coil or folded and it creates alpha helix or pleated sheet and is maintained by hydrogen bonds

what is the tertiary structure of protein

overall 3D shape of a polypeptide (one unit) and it is globular or fibrous and can be both alpha helix and pleated

what is the quaternary structure of protein

multiple polypeptide units

what limits cell size

must have enough surface area to obtain enough oxygen and nutrients and dispose of waste

membrane surface area must support what?

volume of the cell

what does the nucleolus do

ribosomes are born here

what does the nucleus do

DNA/ RNA synthesis, controls cell activities

what does the nuclear envelope do

a double membrane that controls what enters and leaves the nucleus

what do ribosomes do

actual structure that makes proteins

what does the rough ER do

main function is to make more membrane

what does the smooth ER do

series of interconnected tubules that synthesizes lipids

what does the golgi apparatus do

marks and sorts molecules into different batches for different destinations

what do lysosomes do

processes drugs, destroys bacterial cells, recycles old cell parts (no webbed toes)

what do peroxisomes

contain hydrolytic enzymes

what does the vacuole do

storage of water, digestion of nutrients

what do chloroplasts do

converts energy of sun into glucose (photosynthesis)

what does mitochondria do

converts food into chemical energy of ATP

what does cilia do

short hair-like appendages line respiratory tract

what does flagella do

long whip-like structure to propel

what do microtubules do

form the cilia and flagella

what does the cell wall do

in plant cells only and it maintaines the shape and support of the cell

what does the cytoplasm do

fluid filled region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

what does the centriole do

forms spindle during mitisos

what do chromosomes do

can be seen when chromatin condenses

what does chromatin do

nuclear DNA attached to proteins form these long thread-like fibers

what three things do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common

plasma membrane, DNA, and ribosomes

what four things do prokaryotic cells that eukaryotic cells dont have

bacteria and archaea, DNA in nucleioid, capsule protects cell surface, and pili are projections for attachment

what three things do eukaryotic cells have that prokaryotic cells dont

membrane enclosed nucleus, highly developed with organelles, and they are protists, fungi, plants, and animals

what are the ways of passive movement through the cell membrane

diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and filtration

what are the ways of active movement through the cell membrane

active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis

what does a passive method need

no cell energy required

what does an active method need

cell energy required

what is diffusion

high to low concentration

what is osmosis

diffusion of water, high to low concentration

what id facilitated diffusion

goes in a specific protein channel

what is filtration

forced across membrane (like capillaries with blood)

what is active transport

protein channel pumps particles from low to high concentraion

what is endocytosis

bring into cell

what is exocytosis

take out of cell

what is phagocytosis

exocytosis of a solid

what is pinocytosis

exocytosis of a liquid

what is the function of the kidney

to filter urea, salt, and sugar out of the blood through nephrons

what is reabsorption in the kidneys

water, valuable solutes like glucose, salt, amino acids are returned to the blood

what is secretion in the kidneys

from blood to filtrate excess of H+, drugs, and toxins

what is the medulla of the kidney

the inner part

what is the cortex of the kidney

the outer part

what does the glomerulus do

ball of capillaries enclosed by bowman's capsule and creates the blood filtering unit. blood pressure forces water and solutes from blood across the wall of bowman's capsule and into nephron tubule which creates filtrate. blood cells and plasma proteins stay behind

what is bowman's capsule

cup shaped swelling around glomerulus and receives blood and collects filtrate

what does the proximal tubule do

where nutrients, CaCl, water, and HCO3 are reabsorbed and drugs and toxins and H+ ions are secreted

what does the loop of henle do

water reabsorption and concentrates the filtrate between the proximal and distal tubule and where water and nacl are reabsorbed two times, one actively and one passively

what does the distal tubule do

helps refine filtrate and empty into collecting duct and where nacl, water and hco3 are reabsorbed and K+ and H+ are secreted

what does the collecting duct do

concentrates urine while moving urine into renal pelvis then to ureter and where nacl, a little urea, and water are reabsorbed

what is activation energy

energy barrier that must be overcome before a chemical reaction can begin

what do enzymes do

speeds up reaction rate by lowering the activation energy necessary to start the reaction

what is substrate

a specific reactant that an enzyme acts upon

what is an active site

where a substrate fits into the enzyme (a pocket or groove on enzyme surface)

what is induced fit

a substrate and active site change shape to embrace substrate and catalyze the reaction

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