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The main part of the stomach is called


Elliot thought that his peptic ulcers were caused by his nagging parents, and was surprised when the doctor handed him a prescription for medication to treat

a bacterial infection

Heartburn is usually caused by the effects of gastric juice on the


The digestive functions of saliva include

moistening, binding and dissolving food particles; beginning chemical digestion of carbohydrates; and cleansing the teeth and mouth.

Salivary amylase digests


The mechanical breakup of food particles in the mouth is called


The _______ is the layer of the alimentary canal that absorbs nutrients.


The digestive system

ingests food, propels food, mechanically and chemically breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and defecates the remainder.

Matthew takes a drug that inhibits the production of HCl in the stomach to ease the symptoms of a gastric ulcer. If he takes it for a long time, digestion of which nutrient would be affected the most?


The parietal cells of gastric glands secrete

hydrochloric acid.

Gastrin, which stomach cells secrete,

increases secretion by the gastric glands.

All of the enzymes that digest protein are

secreted in an inactive form.

Secretion of cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by

protein and fat in the small intestine.

The hormone secretin

stimulates release of pancreatic juice.

_______ is a protein-splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice.


The liver

forms glucose from noncarbohydrates.

David has sustained severe damage to his liver in a car accident. Digestion of which nutrient will be most affected?


The bile ducts of the liver unite to form the

hepatic ducts.

Gallstones may form if

bile is too concentrated.

The _______ is the part of the digestive tract that has the most lymph nodules and bacteria.


The greater omentum is composed of

the peritoneal membrane.

The epithelial cells that form the inner lining of the small intestine

are replaced every few days.

Which of the following is the correct sequence for the digestion of lipids?

1.Emulsification by bile, 2.Hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase, 3.Dissolved in the epithelial cell membrane, 4.Formation of chylomicrons, 5.Diffusion into lacteal ducts

The major mixing movement in the small intestine is accomplished by


Chylomicrons transport dietary fats to ___________ through the blood.

muscle and adipose cells

Receptor-mediated endocytosis removes _______ from plasma, supplying cholesterol for the body.


________ pick up cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and return it to the liver.


Which of the following is a function of the large intestine?

Absorption of water and electrolytes

Bacteria cause dental caries by

metabolizing carbohydrates in food, producing acidic by-products that damage enamel and dentin.

The tissues turning yellow (jaundice) is due to the accumulation of

bile pigments.

Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?

Synthesis of plasma proteins.

The organs of the urinary system are

paired kidneys, paired ureters, a bladder and a urethra.

Athletes might abuse which of the following chemicals made in the urinary system to improve performance by increasing red blood cell production?

Erythropoietin (EPO)

A renal corpuscle includes the

glomerulus and glomerular capsule.

Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?

Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule

A nephron consists of

a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.

Podocytes and pedicels are part of the

glomerular capsule.

The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the

proximal convoluted tubule.

When plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold,

glucose appears in the urine.

The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the

nephron loop.

The hormone ADH promotes water reabsorption through the wall(s) of the

distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.

Which of the following would increase the rate of glomerular filtration?

Increased blood pressure

Which choice describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop?

Water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb

In the disease gout, plasma has excess

uric acid.

As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure

drops and filtration decreases.

Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be

conserved and water to be conserved.

A renal clearance test determines the rate at which the kidneys can

remove a particular substance from the blood.

The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by _____ and by ____.

vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; renin-angiotensin II vasoconstricting the renal artery

An adaptation of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule for reabsorption is

microscopic projections called microvilli.

The composition of glomerular filtrate differs from that of plasma by including

the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules.

Glomerular filtration produces about ________ liters of fluid in twenty-four hours.


If glucose is not reabsorbed in the tubular fluid ___________ increases.

the osmotic concentration

Water channels in cell membranes formed by __________ are a result of ADH signaling in the kidneys.


Which of the following is not a diuretic?


Linda drinks a 28-ounce venti sugar-free vanilla nonfat caffe latte on her way to work, and has to urinate about a half hour later. This is most likely because

caffeine is a diuretic.

A by-product of amino acid catabolism in the liver is


A product of the metabolism of certain nucleic acid bases is

uric acid.

The relative concentration of potassium is

higher in urine than plasma or glomerular filtrate.

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is used to treat

kidney stones.

The detrusor muscle is in the

urinary bladder.

Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of


The new parents are stunned at the state of their newborn's soiled diaper - it is blue! What might be the cause of the odd diaper stain?

A defect in transport of the amino acid tryptophan in the small intestine

The pyloric sphincter serves as a valve that controls the movement of food between the esophagus and stomach.


Pancreatic acinar cells secrete pancreatic juice.


The movement of chyme through the small intestine is increased by parasympathetic impulses and is inhibited by sympathetic impulses.


If the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma is decreased, the glomerular filtration rate is increased.


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