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Elliot thought that his peptic ulcers were caused by his nagging parents, and was surprised when the doctor handed him a prescription for medication to treat
a bacterial infection
The digestive functions of saliva include
moistening, binding and dissolving food particles; beginning chemical digestion of carbohydrates; and cleansing the teeth and mouth.
The digestive system
ingests food, propels food, mechanically and chemically breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and defecates the remainder.
Matthew takes a drug that inhibits the production of HCl in the stomach to ease the symptoms of a gastric ulcer. If he takes it for a long time, digestion of which nutrient would be affected the most?
Secretion of cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by
protein and fat in the small intestine.
David has sustained severe damage to his liver in a car accident. Digestion of which nutrient will be most affected?
Which of the following is the correct sequence for the digestion of lipids?
1.Emulsification by bile, 2.Hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase, 3.Dissolved in the epithelial cell membrane, 4.Formation of chylomicrons, 5.Diffusion into lacteal ducts
Bacteria cause dental caries by
metabolizing carbohydrates in food, producing acidic by-products that damage enamel and dentin.
Athletes might abuse which of the following chemicals made in the urinary system to improve performance by increasing red blood cell production?
Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?
Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
The hormone ADH promotes water reabsorption through the wall(s) of the
distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.
Which choice describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop?
Water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb
As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure
drops and filtration decreases.
A renal clearance test determines the rate at which the kidneys can
remove a particular substance from the blood.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by _____ and by ____.
vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; renin-angiotensin II vasoconstricting the renal artery
An adaptation of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule for reabsorption is
microscopic projections called microvilli.
The composition of glomerular filtrate differs from that of plasma by including
the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules.
Water channels in cell membranes formed by __________ are a result of ADH signaling in the kidneys.
Linda drinks a 28-ounce venti sugar-free vanilla nonfat caffe latte on her way to work, and has to urinate about a half hour later. This is most likely because
caffeine is a diuretic.
The new parents are stunned at the state of their newborn's soiled diaper - it is blue! What might be the cause of the odd diaper stain?
A defect in transport of the amino acid tryptophan in the small intestine
The pyloric sphincter serves as a valve that controls the movement of food between the esophagus and stomach.
The movement of chyme through the small intestine is increased by parasympathetic impulses and is inhibited by sympathetic impulses.
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