Chem 122 Final Practice
UNR chem 122 fall 2011
Terms in this set (29)
Moles of solute per one liter of solution.
Moles of solute per one kilogram of solvent.
percent by mass
100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.
A molecule in which the centroid of the positive charges is different from the centroid of the negative charges. Also called a dipole.
A molecule with equal distribution of electrons among its atoms.
Solution that contains a greater amount of solute than that needed to form a saturated solution.
A solution that contains less than the amount needed to form a saturated solution.
A physical property of solution that depends on the quantity but not the kind or identity of the solute particles.
Freezing point depression/ boiling point elevation/ vapor pressure lowered/ osmosis
Four colligative properties seperated by /'s
vapor pressure lowered
The reduction of vapor pressure depends on the total concentration of solute particles.
When the solvent in a solution is water.
Interactions between solute and solvent molecules.
The degree of randomness or disorder in the system.
boiling point elevation
The boiling point of a solution is higher than that of pure liquid. The increase in boiling point relative to that of pure solvent is a positive quantity.
freezing point depression
When a solution freezes, crystals of pure solvent usually seperate out; the solute molecules are not normally soluble in the solid phase of the solvent.
The net movement of solvent is always toward the solution with the higher solute concentration.
Equation that relates rate equal to K [A]⁹[B]ⁿ g=m
Average rate of appearance
The change in concentration of B over a particular time interval.
Average rate of disappearance
The negative change in concentration of A over a particular time interval.
The constant k in the rate law. The magnitude of k changes with the temperature and therefore determines how temperature affects rate.
The time required for the concentration of a reactant to reach one-half of its initial value.
Rate processes that occur in a single step.
A substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction without undergoing a permanant chemical change itself in the process.
The rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
Le Chatelier's principle
If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure, or the concentration of one of the components, the system will shift its equilibrium postition so as to counteract the effect of the disturbance.
A chemical compound formed by replacing all or part of the hydrogen ions of an acid with metal ions or electropositive radicals.
An aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid.
A process that proceeds on its own without outside assistance.
When both oxidation and reduction occur. When one substance is reduced and another oxidized.
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