Fundamentals of Fire Fighter Skills 3rd edition- Ch 13 ladders part 1
Terms in this set (65)
Provide a vertical path, either up or down, from one level of a structure to another. Provides access or egress from an area.
Method of exit to escape
The level at which the ground intersects the foundation of a structure.
Allows FF a stable platform for roof operations
A-shaped structure formed with two ladder sections. Used to lower rescuer into a trench or man hole or to raise a victim out.
What are some other uses for ladders?
Can be used as ramps, for hoisting or lowering, shore up damaged walls, support hose lines over an opening, or guide a rope down over a wall.
One of the two main structural components that run the entire length of most ladders or ladder sections.
What are the 3 different types of beams?
Trussed beam - has top and bottom rails which are joined together by truss blocks. Usually made of aluminum or wood. Often for long extension ladders.
I-beam - thick sections at top and bottom which are connected by a thinner section. Usually made of fiberglass
Solid beam - simple rectangular cross section. Many wooden ladders are solid beam. Rectangular aluminum beams with a Hollow C-shaped beam is also considered solid beam.
Top or bottom section of a trussed beam. Rungs are attached to truss blocks.
Piece or assembly that connects the two rails of a trussed beam. Rungs are attached to truss blocks. Can be made of metal or wood.
Cross piece that spans the two beams of a ladder. Serves as steps up or down the ladder. Transfer weight to beams.
Metal bar that runs from one beam of the ladder to another and keeps the beams from separating. Typically found on wooden ladders.
Very top of the ladder
End of the ladder that is placed against the ground when the ladder is raised. Also known as the heal or base.
Metal spikes that are attached to the butt of a ladder. Prevent the butt from slipped out of position.
Alternative to simple butt spur. It's a swiveling plate attached to the butt of a ladder and incorporates both a spur or cleat or pad
Spring loaded, retractable, curved metal pieces that are attached to the tip of a roof ladder. Used to secure ladder tip of ladder to peak of roof.
Heat sensor label
Identifies when ladder has been exposed to a specific Amount of heat conditions that could damage its structural integrity. Label changes color when exposed to heat.
Reinforcing pieces that are placed on a ladder at chaffing and contact points to prevent damage from friction with other surfaces
Components of extension ladders?
Widest section of extension ladder. Serves as the base. Bottom of bed section rests on supporting system.
Part of the extension ladder that is extended from the bed section. Will have one or more fly sections.
Strips of metal or wood that guide a fly section as it is being extended. Channels or slots may also serve as guides.
Rope or cable used to extend or hoist the fly section of extension ladder. Runs through a pulley.
Pawls (dogs, ladder locks, rung locks)
Mechanical locking devices that are used to change the direction of Halyard pull.
Pieces of wood or metal that prevent the fly section of a ladder from over extending and collapsing the ladder. Also referred to as stop blocks.
Stay poles (tormentors)
Long metal poles that are attached to the top of the bed section and help to stabilize the ladder as it is being raised or lowered. Ladder with stay poles are typically called Bangor ladders.
Ladders are classified in two ways..
Aerial or portable
Permanently attached and operated from a piece of motorized fire apparatus.
Carried on fire apparatus but are designed to be removed and used in other locations.
Standard for automotive fire apparatus, also identifies minimum requirements for portable ladders for each type of apparatus.
What is the working length of aerial ladders?
How many ladders are engines required to carry?
One roof ladder
One extension ladder
One folding ladder
How many ladders are ladder trucks required to carry?
Must carry at least 115FT of ladder.
One roof ladder
Two straight ladders
Two extension ladders
What is the maximum length of portable ladder?
Single section fixed length ladder. Commonly 12 -14 ft but can extend to 20ft.
Straight ladder equipped with retractable hooks at one end. Roof hooks are used to secure tip of ladder to the peak of the roof. Provides stable platform and distribute FF weight to allow them to work safely on the roof and reducing the risk of roof collapse. Usually 12-18 ft long.
Adjustable length ladder with a bed section and one or more fly sections.
Extension ladders with stay poles that give added stability. Stay poles are required on ladders greater than 40ft in length.
Can be converted from straight ladder to stepladder configuration to extension ladder. Convenient for indoor use.
(Attic ladder) narrow, collapsible ladder designed to allow access to narrow attic scuttle holes and confined areas.
Narrow, two-section extension ladder designed to provide attic access. No halyard. Must be extended manually.
Standard for manufacturers design of fire department ground ladders.
Standard for use, maintenance, and service testing of in-service fire department ground ladder.
How often should ground ladders be inspected?
At least annually
After each use
What portion of padders can be painted?
Top and bottom 18 inches. Paint hides structural defects.
How to clean ladders?
After each Use and before inspection.
Use water, a mild diluted detergent and a soft bristle brush to clean.
When should service testing be completed?
When a new ladder is used, annually, when exposed to extreme heat, overloaded, has been impact or shock loaded, visibly damaged, or is suspected of being damaged in someway.
What test is used to evaluate the structural strength of a ladder?
Horizontal bending test - ladder is placed horizontally across a couple structural supports. A weight is placed in the center. Amount of deflection or bending or bending is measured to evaluate the ladders strength.
What are some basic safety issues with ground ladders?
Lifting and moving ladders
Placement of ground ladders
Working on a ladder
What PPE shall be worn while working with ground ladders?
Full turnout clothing and protective equipment
What is the most important safety check before placing a ladder?
Checking for overhead hazards. Utility lines and other physical hazards
At a minimum, how far should ground ladders be kept away from utility lines?
10ft while using or raising them.
Other than overhead hazards what is another type of hazard that you should evaluate before placing a ladder?
Always evaluate the stability of the surface before placing the ladder. Continue to ensure ground stability.
What is the proper climbing angle of a ladder
75 degrees for maximum load capacity and safety.
How far out from the wall must you place the base of the ladder to ensure the 75 degree climbing angle?
distance of butt to base of wall should be equal to 1/4 the height to be laddered.
What must be locked and what must be tied before anyone climbs the ladder?
another FF secures the base of the ladder. Uses FF weight to keep base of ladder from slipping. Can also be mechanically secured to a solid object.
What is the maximum weight limit of a ground ladder?
750lbs: includes 2 FF's and 1 victim
How many FF per each section of ladder?
1 per fly section
on a 2 fly ladder you may have 2 FF
on a 3 fly ladder you may have 3 FF
When working on a ground ladder, what should a FF do or wear?
FF must secure themselves with a leg lock or class 1 safety harness.
Where do you position a ladder for rescue?
Place the tip of the ladder at or slightly below the window sill. The ladder should not occlude any part of the window.
What should be done with a ladder that is used outside of its recommended specs?
It should be taken out of service and inspected and tested by qualified personnel.
When ladders are raised to roofs, what is the common rule of thumb for how many rungs should be visible to assist with egress?
5 rungs must be visible to provide FF with a visible exit point from a roof.
During access operations to windows, where should the ladder be placed?
to the side of a window with the ladder tip equal to the top of the window opening.
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