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point mutation

mutation that's the addition, deletion or substitution of a single base


mutation that's any change in the genetic code that leads to placement of a different amino acid during translation (a codon is changed)

silent mutation

mutation that alters a base but does not change the amino acid (because it gets another codon for the same acid)


when a mutated gene goes back to its original state

chemical carcinogens

the Ames test is one based on back-mutations and tests for _____ _______

frameshift mutation, complete change of proteins

mutation that that happens because a reading frame of mRNA has been changed by insertion or deletion of bases. does this change the protein being made?

excision repair

mutation repair where special enzymes remove incorrect bases and add correct ones. only seen in some bacteria.

light repair

mutation repair when enzymes produced in the presence of light repair the DNA

ames test, mutation

the _____ test expresses back mutation. a bacterial gene is marked and used to test the _______ rate of a chemical.

higher, potent

in the ames test, the _____ the rate of back mutation, the more ______ the mutagen (carcinogen in humans)


the genetic transfer of dna from one bacterium to another


the _______ organism is the one in recombination that has and expresses the NEW dna


type of recombination that involves the direct exchange of plasmids


type of recombination where naked dna transfers indirectly


the _______test proved that dna from a dead cell can be acquired and expressed by a live cell


what is the virulence factor in a griffith's test?


type of recombination in which a bacteriophage (virus) is the vector using donor & recipient cells

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