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A&P 1: Chapter 9
Terms in this set (42)
Joint or articulation
The place of contact between bones, between bone & cartilage, or between bones & teeth.
The scientific study of joints.
has no joint cavity & occurs where bones are held together by dense regular (fibrous) connective tissue.
Primary function is to hold bones together.
has no joint cavity & occurs where bones are joined by cartilage.
Primary function is to resist compression & tension stress & act as resilient shock absorbers.
has a fluid-filled joint cavity that separates the articulating surfaces of the bones. The articulating surfaces are enclosed within a connective tissue capsule, & the bones are attached to each other by carious ligaments.
Primary function is movement, so they are all freely mobile.
Joints are classified functionally based on...
the extent of movement they permit.
is an immobile joint.
Two types of fibrous joints & one type of cartilaginous joint are synarthroses.
is a slightly mobile joint.
One type of fibrous joint & one type of cartilaginous joint are amphiarthroses.
is a freely mobile joint.
All synovial joints are diarthrosis.
3 types of fibrous joints
Gomphosis: Periodontal membranes hold tooth to bony jaw.
Suture: Dense regular connective tissue connects skull bones.
Syndesmosis: Dense regular connective tissue fibers between bones.
A broad ligamentous sheet that bounds the shafts of the two articulating bones.
Provides a pivot where the radius and ulna (or tibia and fibula) can move against one another.
2 types of cartilaginous joints
Synchondrosis: Hyaline cartilage between bones.
Symphysis: Fibrocartilage pad between bones.
A joint is said to be uniaxial if...
the bone moves in just one plane or axis.
Uniaxial Synovial Joints
Plane Joint: Flattened or slightly curved faces slide across one another.
Hinge Joint: Convex feature of one bone fits into concave depression of another bone.
Pivot Joint: Bone with a rounded surface fits into a ring formed by a ligament & another bone.
A joint is biaxial if...
the bone moves in two planes or axes.
Biaxial Synovial Joints
Condylar Joint: Oval articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a depressed oval surface on another bone.
Saddle Joint: Saddle-shaped articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a saddle-shaped surface on another bone.
A joint is multiaxial if...
the bone moves in multiple planes or axes.
Multiaxial Synovial Joints
Ball-and-socket Joint: Round head of one bone rests within cup-shaped depression in another bone.
All articulating bone surfaces in a synovial joint are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage called...
Each synovial joint is composed of a double-layered capsule called..
the articular capsule (or joint capsule)
Outer layer is called the fibrous layer & inner layer is a synovial membrane.
A space that permits separation of the articulating bones.
Only synovial joints house this.
Composed of dense regular connective tissue, & they connect one bone to another bone.
Function to stabilize, strengthen, & reinforce most synovial joints.
Outside of, & physically separate from, the joint capsule.
Represent thickenings of the articular capsule itself.
All synovial joints have numerous sensory nerves & blood vessels that...
innervate & supply the articular capsule & associated ligaments.
are like ligaments & are composed of dense regular connective tissue but they are not part of the synovial joint itself.
Attaches muscle to bone.
A fibrous, saclike structure that contains synovial fluid & is lined internally by a synovial membrane.
They are designed to alleviate the friction resulting from the various body movements, such as where a tendon or ligament rubs against a bone.
An elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon where there may be excessive friction.
Common in the confined spaces of the wrist & ankle.
Often distributed along the periphery of a synovial joint.
They act as a packing material & provide some protection for the joint.
Often fill the spaces that form when bones move & the joint cavity changes shape.
is an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point called the fulcrum.
Movement occurs when...
an effort applied to one point on the lever exceeds a resistance located at some other point.
The part of a lever from the fulcrum to the point of effort.
The lever part from the fulcrum to the point of resistance.
3 Classes of Levers found in the human body:
has a fulcrum in the middle, between the effort (force) & the resistance.
i.e., a pair of scissors.
Atlanto-occipital joint of the neck.
The resistance is between the fulcrum & the applied effort.
i.e., lifting the handles of a wheelbarrow, allowing it to pivot on its wheel at the opposite end & lift a load in the middle.
Rare in the body, but one example occurs when the foot is depressed (plantar flexed) so that a person can stand on tiptoe.
is observed when the effort is applied between the resistance & the fulcrum, as when picking up a small object with a pair of forceps.
The most common levers in the body.
Found at the elbow where the fulcrum is the joint between the humerus & ulna.
4 Types of motion occur at synovial joints:
Two opposing articular surfaces slide past each other in almost any direction; the amount of movement is slight.
The angle between articulating bones increases or decreases.
A bone pivots around its own longitudinal axis.
Types of movement that do not fit in the previous categories.
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