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66 terms

final review answers

STUDY
PLAY
A natural, meandering, river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth,
canal-like channel. Which of the following statements is correct?
The straight channel has a higher gradient and more friction than the natural channel.
__________ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.
Silt and clay-sized grains
__________ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.
An oxbow
__________ are components of the hydrologic cycle that release water vapor directly to the
atmosphere.
Evaporation and transpiration
Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?
on the outer parts of the meander loops or bends
__________ describes the particle transport mode in streams intermediate between
suspension and rolling along the bottom?
Saltation
Which one of the following best describes how urbanization affects small-stream
watersheds?
Infiltration decreases; lag time between storms and peak runoff is shortened.
A dam and reservoir are constructed on a graded river (having the 'normal' profile showed inclass). What will happen?
Deposition upstream from the dam; channel downcutting below.
After ice sheets and glaciers, __________ contains the next highest percentage of the Earth's
freshwater.
groundwater
The water table is __________.
boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above.
__________ controls the ease of groundwater flow through a porous material.
Permeability
__________ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.
High porosity and high permeability
An artesian well is one in which __________.
water rises above the top of the aquifer without any pumping
Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause __________.
The water table drops or declines in elevation.
For unconfined aquifers, what hydrologic factor is approximated by the slope of the water
table?
hydraulic gradient
__________ is the volume of voids or open space in a rock or unconsolidated material.
Porosity
A spring forms when
groundwater discharges from a fault connecting an artesian aquifer to the ground surface.the water table intersects the ground surface. (Both B and C are correct.)
Highly impermeable layers such as compacted clay or shale are known as __________.
Aquitards
__________ is one of the two, major flow mechanism in a glacier.
Basal slip
Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?
Antarctica
Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus
downslope) over a period of many years?
Accumulation exceeds wastage.
_____ moraine
till
_____ cirque
solid rock
_____ esker
outwash
_____ horn
solid rock
_____ drumlin
till
__________ first developed the theory that small variations in the Earth-Sun distance were
responsible for short term, climatic oscillations (1000 to 100,000 years).
M. Milankovitch
What type of moraine would be most useful for tracing diamond-bearing rock fragments
directly to their bedrock source area?
lateral and medial of an alpine glacier
A __________ forms when stagnant piece of glacial ice melts after being buried by drift
kettle
Which of the following is often associated with a cirque basin in high, mountainous terrain
tarn lake
Low ridges on a flood plain that parallel a stream channel are called
natural levees
The change in elevation of a stream divided by its distance of flow is called its
gradient
The volume of water passing a given point per unit of time in a stream is its
discharge
The distance water travels per unit time in a stream is called its
velocity
A stream flowing over a granite that has regular fractures would most likely exhibit a
____________ drainage pattern.
rectangular
Streams begin to meander when their
gradient approaches base level
A ___________ forms at the intersection of the water table and the land surface
spring
A well which is drilled (bottomed) into the vadose zone
is dry
Streams receiving water directly from the saturated zone of an unconfined aquifer are
said to be
gaining streams
Darcy's Law says that the flow rate of groundwater is controlled by
hydraulic head and permeability
A rock unit which does not allow much groundwater flow is called
an aquitard
The contact zone between the vadose zone and the saturated zone is called the
water table
A ______________ develops around a pumping well with time.
cone of depression
What type of aquifer has layers of low permeability on its top and bottom?
confined
The amount of water stored in a rock is controlled by its
porosity
Caves, sinkholes and disappearing streams are common in areas of
karst topography
The flow rate within a glacier is fastest
along its surface
A steep-sided, bowl-shaped depression at the head of a glacial valley is called a
cirque
The material that makes up a drumlin is
till
Alpine glaciation describes glaciated terrain found
in mountainous regions
Glaciers advance in response to gravity when the amount of ice and snow accumulated is _____________ the amount melting.
greater than
As continental glaciers advanced across North America during the last ice age,
worldwide sea level
dropped
The profile of a glaciated valley is characteristically
U-shaped
A ____________ is deposited when the ice terminus is stationary.
end moraine
Which of the following does not apply to the Zone of Wastage of a glacier?
region below snow line
Coal, oil, and gas all form from the decomposition of
organic matter
The only beds of anthracite coal in the US are found in
the Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania
Which of the following is not needed to produce an economic accumulation of oil or
gas?
marine limestones
Given all other conditions are the same, ground water flows faster if ___.
it is flowing in response to a greater hydraulic gradient
The limit to downcutting of a stream is called the ___ level.
base
Limestone topography marked by an abundance of sinkholes is called
karst
Orbital variations of the Earth that may be related to glaciations are called
Milankovitch Cycles
Sublimation and calving of glaciers occurs in the zone of
ablation
A truncated tributary valley is called
a hanging valley
Material deposited by a glacier in mounds or ridges is called
a moraine
In a hydrocarbon trap containing oil, gas and water, the water will always be found
on the bottom