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A natural, meandering, river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth,
canal-like channel. Which of the following statements is correct?

The straight channel has a higher gradient and more friction than the natural channel.

__________ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams.

Silt and clay-sized grains

__________ is an abandoned, cutoff, meander loop.

An oxbow

__________ are components of the hydrologic cycle that release water vapor directly to the

Evaporation and transpiration

Where is erosion concentrated along a meandering stream?

on the outer parts of the meander loops or bends

__________ describes the particle transport mode in streams intermediate between
suspension and rolling along the bottom?


Which one of the following best describes how urbanization affects small-stream

Infiltration decreases; lag time between storms and peak runoff is shortened.

A dam and reservoir are constructed on a graded river (having the 'normal' profile showed inclass). What will happen?

Deposition upstream from the dam; channel downcutting below.

After ice sheets and glaciers, __________ contains the next highest percentage of the Earth's


The water table is __________.

boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above.

__________ controls the ease of groundwater flow through a porous material.


__________ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.

High porosity and high permeability

An artesian well is one in which __________.

water rises above the top of the aquifer without any pumping

Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause __________.

The water table drops or declines in elevation.

For unconfined aquifers, what hydrologic factor is approximated by the slope of the water

hydraulic gradient

__________ is the volume of voids or open space in a rock or unconsolidated material.


A spring forms when

groundwater discharges from a fault connecting an artesian aquifer to the ground surface.the water table intersects the ground surface. (Both B and C are correct.)

Highly impermeable layers such as compacted clay or shale are known as __________.


__________ is one of the two, major flow mechanism in a glacier.

Basal slip

Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?


Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus
downslope) over a period of many years?

Accumulation exceeds wastage.

_____ moraine


_____ cirque

solid rock

_____ esker


_____ horn

solid rock

_____ drumlin


__________ first developed the theory that small variations in the Earth-Sun distance were
responsible for short term, climatic oscillations (1000 to 100,000 years).

M. Milankovitch

What type of moraine would be most useful for tracing diamond-bearing rock fragments
directly to their bedrock source area?

lateral and medial of an alpine glacier

A __________ forms when stagnant piece of glacial ice melts after being buried by drift


Which of the following is often associated with a cirque basin in high, mountainous terrain

tarn lake

Low ridges on a flood plain that parallel a stream channel are called

natural levees

The change in elevation of a stream divided by its distance of flow is called its


The volume of water passing a given point per unit of time in a stream is its


The distance water travels per unit time in a stream is called its


A stream flowing over a granite that has regular fractures would most likely exhibit a
____________ drainage pattern.


Streams begin to meander when their

gradient approaches base level

A ___________ forms at the intersection of the water table and the land surface


A well which is drilled (bottomed) into the vadose zone

is dry

Streams receiving water directly from the saturated zone of an unconfined aquifer are
said to be

gaining streams

Darcy's Law says that the flow rate of groundwater is controlled by

hydraulic head and permeability

A rock unit which does not allow much groundwater flow is called

an aquitard

The contact zone between the vadose zone and the saturated zone is called the

water table

A ______________ develops around a pumping well with time.

cone of depression

What type of aquifer has layers of low permeability on its top and bottom?


The amount of water stored in a rock is controlled by its


Caves, sinkholes and disappearing streams are common in areas of

karst topography

The flow rate within a glacier is fastest

along its surface

A steep-sided, bowl-shaped depression at the head of a glacial valley is called a


The material that makes up a drumlin is


Alpine glaciation describes glaciated terrain found

in mountainous regions

Glaciers advance in response to gravity when the amount of ice and snow accumulated is _____________ the amount melting.

greater than

As continental glaciers advanced across North America during the last ice age,
worldwide sea level


The profile of a glaciated valley is characteristically


A ____________ is deposited when the ice terminus is stationary.

end moraine

Which of the following does not apply to the Zone of Wastage of a glacier?

region below snow line

Coal, oil, and gas all form from the decomposition of

organic matter

The only beds of anthracite coal in the US are found in

the Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania

Which of the following is not needed to produce an economic accumulation of oil or

marine limestones

Given all other conditions are the same, ground water flows faster if ___.

it is flowing in response to a greater hydraulic gradient

The limit to downcutting of a stream is called the ___ level.


Limestone topography marked by an abundance of sinkholes is called


Orbital variations of the Earth that may be related to glaciations are called

Milankovitch Cycles

Sublimation and calving of glaciers occurs in the zone of


A truncated tributary valley is called

a hanging valley

Material deposited by a glacier in mounds or ridges is called

a moraine

In a hydrocarbon trap containing oil, gas and water, the water will always be found

on the bottom

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