- son of Laertes, wife of Penelope, father of Telemachus, king of Ithaca and the surrounding islands
- Odysseus's father, who resides on a farm in Ithaca. In despair and physical decline, Laertes regains his spirit when Odysseus returns and eventually kills Antinous's father
- Old nurse of Odysseus and Telemachus, attendant of Penelope, found Odysseus's scar bathing him
- god of the sea, younger brother of Zeus, father of Polyphemus, through out the book is an enemy of Odysseus
- king of Pylos and a former warrior in the Trojan War. Like Odysseus, Nestor is known as a clever speaker. Telemachus visits him in Book 3 to ask about his father, but Nestor knows little of Odysseus's whereabouts.
- husband of Clytemnestra, murder by her and Aegisthus, supreme commander of all Achaea's armies and leader of the largest contingent at Troy
- king of the Phaeacians, where Odysseus told his story, sent Odysseus with gold to Ithaca, and he finally made it there but then Poseidon destroyed their ship
- Phaeacian who mocks Odysseus, saying that he must be terrible at contests when he declines to play, but then Odysseus chucks a discus and shows him up
- people who Odysseus sacks right after leaving Troy, then reinforcements come while Odysseus's men are unprepared; Trojan allies
- legendary people visited by Odysseus, they live on a plant whose fruit induces stupor and forgetfulness of home; danger Odysseus's return home even though it isn't physically dangerous, Odysseus has to carry some crewmen back to the boat
- a cannibal clan of one-eyed giants, where Odysseus lands and goes with some of his men to explore, he ends up in Polyphemus's cave
- son of Poseidon, Odysseus escapes after blinding him and tricking him but going under the sheep, and then taunts him as he leaves; Polyphemus gets mad and prays to his dad (Poseidon) who then deters the rest of Odysseus's return home
- master of the winds, gives Odysseus a bag with winds, while Odysseus is asleep the crew open it and are blown back to Aeolus who shun them.
- blind seer of Thebes, who retains his prophetic powers even in the underworld where Odysseus visits him and he warns him of Helio's cattle
- commander of the Myrmidons, Achaean allies, at troy; traded a long life for a short and glorious one; Achilles was an Archean warrior, who fought alongside Odysseus until he was killed by an arrow to the heel; he appears in the land of the dead in Book 11, and has a conversation with Odysseus; he treats Odysseus like a friend, and is kind and respectful, through this conversation Odysseus learns some of the realities of the afterlife and that he is not invincible.
- enchantress of the see whose song can tempt a sailor to his ruin; to pass it the crew plugs their ears with beeswax and Odysseus listens while tied to the mast
- 6 headed man-eating monster that lives in a Cliffside cavern opposite the whirlpool of Charybdis; takes some of the crew but the rest make it past
- swineherd of Odysseus; stays very loyal to Odysseus, Telemachus and Laertes; provides Odysseus with a place to stay; delivers Penelope message of Telemachus's return.
- the leading suitor, he is rude, obnoxious, and greedy. Antinous leads the suitors to invade the palace, eat all the food and tries to marry Penelope; in Book 18, Antinous tries to host Odysseus, but is reminded that he is not the host by Telemachus; he tries to kill Telemachus on his return, which Athena stops, and is the first to be killed by Odysseus
- 2nd leading suitor to Antinous, tries to regroup the suitors after Antinous is killed, but then he is killed 2nd,
- disloyal rude goatherd; insults Odysseus when he walks by him as a beggar, and is the last to be killed, after he gets weapons for the suitors, and is punished by torture
- nickname of a fat, greedy, provoking Ithacan beggar, beat up by Odysseus, but he makes sure that he doesn't kill him, and the victory gains him access to inside his own house
- Ithacan bard who is spared because they were just in the wrong place at the wrong time, he didn't try to get Penelope