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40 terms

Tyler Stephenson

science mid- term exam
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organism
any living thing
cell
the smallest unit of an organism that carries on the functions of life
homeostasis
the regularion of an organisms internal, life maintaining condition despite changes in its enviroment
binomial nomenclature
the two word naming system used to name various organisms
genus
a group of similar species
kingdom
the largest group of the classification system
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of an organism
dichotomus key
detailed list of scientific names and identifying characteristics
Carolus Linnaeus
invented two word naming systemused widely by scientists
cell theory
the theory that every cell came from a cell that
already exsisted
cell wall
tough, rigid outer covering that protects cells and give them shape
cell membrane
the outer most covering of a cell
cytoplasm
a gelatin like substance in a cell
ribosomes
small stuctures that cells make proteins on
organelles
stuctures in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces energy and other things
nucleus
a part of a cell which all activities are directed by
chloroplasts
green organelles in the cytoplasm that food is made of
mitochondria
releases the energy in food
endoplasmic reticulum
a complex series of membranes in the cytoplasm of a cell
Golgi bodies
stacked, flattened membranes that package and transport materials
tissue
a group of similar cells that work together
organ
a stucture of two different types of tissues that work together
organ system
a group of organs working together to perform a certain function
host cell
living cell in which a virus can actively multiply or in which a virus can hide until activated by enviromental stimuli
virus
a strand of hereditary material surronded by a protein coating
Mitosis
the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
chromosome
a structure in the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
asexual reproduction
a new organism is produced from one organism
plasma
liquid part of blood
hemoglobin
a molecule that carries oxygen and carbondioxide and keeps blood red
platelets
irregularly shaped cell fragments that helps clot blood
artery
blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
capilaries
blood vessels that connect arteies and veins
veins
blood vessels that bring blood back to the heart
lymph
fluid that has diffused into the lymphatic capillaries
pasteurization
the process of heating a liquid to a temperature that kills most bacteria
infeectious disease
a disease that is spread from an infected organism or the enviroment to another organism
noninfectious disease
not spread from one person to another
allergens
substances that cause an allergic response
immune system
a system in our bodies that fights pathogens and diseases