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Émile Durkheim

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Is Emile Durkheim a structural functionalist?
Yes he is.
What does Durkheim believe is of essence to society?
Solidarity (Social order/stability), shared consciousness/beliefs.
What is dynamic density?
the number of people within an area and the interactions among them.
What does dynamic density lead to?
Increasing Division of Labor (1893)
(more specialization).
What are the three divisions of labor?
Anomie/Anomy
Normal
Forced
What is Anomie Division of labor?
Where a lot of people with skills can't find work. There is no demand. The norms are not clear. There is insufficiency.
What is Normal Division of Labor?
Most people can find work, there is a sync w/ labor and economy. Highlights equilibrium, stability, solidarity.The skills and the labor are in line with the economy. (stabilized).
What is the Forced Division of Labor?
Non-democratic, oppressive, slave like. There is no sync with skills and structure).
Organisms
Society is a whole, composed of interdependent parts. Society is concieved much like the body, however; it is susceptible to disease. The body is a structure- Society is a structure
What is Durkheim's take on realm of consciousness?
It has priority over materialism.
Does Durkheim support the idea to moving from primitive (old) to modern (new)?
Yes he does.
In a primitive society there are similar groups what would there be in a modern society?
There would be different groupings. Idea of special roles.
In a modern society there is creative individual difference, what would there be in a primitive society?
There would be little individual difference.
What does mechanical solidarity in a primitive society move to be in a modern society?
An Organic Solidarity (which is of the essence)
Describe Organic Solidarity?
It increases the reliance on other people. Restitution law; this idea of reaffirming w/ restorations to pay to make it right.
Describe Mechanical Solidarity?
People view the world the same way. Idea of Repressive Law; restraining people from freedom. Highlighted punishment.
What causes all these changes to occur?
More people crowded together; such as industrialization.
Durkheim believes sociology is the study of what?
Social facts/realities.
Describe social facts?
They are external to people, separate from us. They lie outside our experiences.Patterns/rates that can only be explained by other social facts. There is Material social facts and Non-material social facts.
What is Material Social Facts?
The things you can observe or study; rates, statistics, division of labor.
What is Non-Material Facts?
Things that cannot be measured; morality, consciousness.
What must we do in order to understand and get at these non-material facts?
We must look at the material social facts/world to open up non-material.
What does Durkheim believe causes suicide?
Durkheim thinks suicide is more of a group cause/behavior rather than from the individual.
Is it true that with Durkheim nothing is reduced to the individual level?
Yes, he analysis the groups.
What did Durkheim fear?
He feared of the society falling apart; need this emphasis on stability and social order.
The division of labor from old to new can be explained how?
The movement from similarity to become more specialized and more interdependent on those in such a special field.
What is the metaphor Durkheim uses for Organic Solidarity?
It is the 'social glue', this interdependent reliance on others.
What is the essence of social reality?
This shared set of belief/values.
Social Stratification can be seen as what?
Beneficial/useful function for society. Good for society. Guarantees smooth functioning.
What is Durkheim's view on social order (human nature)?
Human nature is competitive.
How does Durkheim view Suicide?
As social normalcy; it has always existed at some rate and time in societies. Suicide can be an example of non-material social facts.
Crime serves as what?
A function/clarify moral order. (functional).
Social Regulation
"strength" of norms and values
Social integration
degree of attachment to the social group/society.
What are the four types of suicide?
Fatalistic, anomic, altruistic, and egoistic suicide.
Fatalistic Suicide
groups that live overly regulated/dictated lives (slaves, military...)
Anoomic Suicide
real danger, lack of regulation and shared norms. (study abroad, immigrants...)
Altruistic Suicide
people/group committed to beliefs/ "overly" committed.
(suicide bombers, group suicide)
Egoistic Suicide
alone/ detached individual becomes so low insifficient integration.
Suicide varies with religion
Protestainst (internal spirit forces) are not as affected as integrating people as the Catholics (external forces).
Salvation story either connected or didn't connect people with their faith.
Suicide varies with gender
Women (historically) have lower suicide rates than men because they convey religion to the family. Women had a strong functional role.
What does Durkheim express great importance upon?
Importance of feeling part of something bigger than yourself. Sense of belongingness/ solidarity. Essence of society is stability/ 'what is' not 'what ought to be.'
Collective consciousness
Shared values, ideas. society is composed of collective representations. they are like magnits, they collect and draw peoples sentiments in.
What is an example of collective representations
Fraternity, U.S...
They have meaningful beliefs/values.
Profane objects
matter through ritual
(the buffalo... celebrate a game, wear a t-shirt)
Collective representations
are like collective consciousness but stronger. Make a mundane symbol representative of all us. The item itself has no value until we make/organize a ritual we give it power and sacredness.
Where does sacred come from
The external/us, not the internal.
What is an example of sacred
The American flag... make it sacred by ritual of pledge of allegiance.
Anomy/ie
(a lack of moral regulation)...overly specialized; the norms are not clear. There is insufficient clarity. Like the social condition of Marx's alienation.
What is the old social glue
collective consciousness
What will replace the old social glue?
Interdependence; the new social glue: shared belief of individual rights/ individualism is also form or social glue.
The elementary forms of religious life... key thesis
1. group life is generating source of religion
2. religous ideas/ practices refer to or symbolize the social group
3. distinction between sanction and profane is found universally and has important implications.
Is is true that when groups worships they are worshiping aspects of themselves?
Yes
Social relation of religion
Reaffirms, creates a collective "we, and them"
Ritualization
Religion serves us to afford to ritualization. It reinforces who we are.
Symbolization
something that refers to something else (Ralphie the buffalo).
When do symbolization become important?
Becomes important via a ritualization process. This process of ritualization of symbol (secular) accomplish the same as religious rituals. (reunites people)
What are the five components of collective representations?
1. refer to objects that transform without a social implication to a social implication.
2. allow the individual to identify w/ themselves.
3. invested in social value through ritual
4. generate masses sentiments
5. necessary to sustain social groups.
Is it true that we as human beings make things sacred through collective representations/ processes?
Yes; sacred is NOT intrinsic: belonging naturally, is essential.
Is it true that nothing has inherit meaning
Yes nothing has inherit meaning.
Profane
ordinary objects that aren't sacred (dishwasher,dryer)
Is it true that all cultures make distinctions between sacred/profane, and its universal and each culture makes different distinctions.
Yes this is true
Durkheim theoretical orientation (action/order)... collectivist
The society is first; it shapes individuals (second). There aren't individuals being talked about
What motivates social action?
Collective representations/solidarity.
Is it true that Durkheim supports sacred as being religion?
Yes
What is the function of religion?
Group cohesion by collective representations.
Explain Social Solidarity being the glue that holds society together?
This unity or agreement of feeling or action through rituals.
What is Durheim's non-rational perspective?
Focuses on how collective representations and moral sentiments are a motivation source. This idea of internal feelings of connectedness/emotion concerned w/ internal.
Describe why crime is normal?
It has material benefits (creates income... for police). It has always existed.
Durkheim asks what causes the spikes/rises...
he would explain it w/other social facts... non-material social facts that clarify what acceptable/ non-acceptable behavior is
System requisite needs
society has certain needs carried out by its parts... idea of Sui Generis
Sui Generis
Society is the sum of the whole of its parts; with society being the organ separate from its parts.
Social Solidarity
the cohesion of social groups.
Society as systems/subsystems
Society as a system of interrelated parts (religious institutions, the economy, government, the family...) work together to form a unitary, stable whole analogous to how the parts of the human body (lungs, kidneys, brain) function interdependently to sustain its general well being.
Does Durkheim put an emphasis on the power of the group?
Yes
Is it true that solidarity (feeling of oneness) comes from each person cultivating individual differences and knowing that each is doing her part for the good of the whole.
Yes
Is it true that Durkheim suggested that in a "primitive" society, mechanical solidarity, with people acting and thinking alike and with a collective or common conscience, is what allows social order to be maintained?
Yes