AP English Terms 1/2

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Active voice
The subject of the sentence performs the action. Opposite of passive voice
Allusion
An indirect reference to something (usually a literary text) with which the reader is supposed to be familiar
Alter ego
A character that is used by the author to speak the authors own thoughts
Anecdote
A recounting of a relevant episode.
Antecedent
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun
Classicism
Art or Literature characterized by a realistic view of people and the world; sticks to traditional themes
Comic relief
When a humorous scene is inserted into a serious story in order to lighten the mood
Diction
Word choice, particularly as an element of style.
Colloquial
Ordinary or familiar type of conversation. A colloquialism is a common or familiar type of saying similar to an adage or aphorism.
Connotation
Rather than the dictionary definition, the associations suggested by a word. Implied meaning rather than literal meaning.
Denotation
The literal, explicit meaning of a word, w/o it's connotations
Jargon
The diction used by a group which practices a similar profession or activity
Vernacular
1. Language or dialect of a particular country
2. Language or dialect of a regional clinic or group
3. Plain every day speech
Didactic
A term used to describe fiction nonfiction or poultry it teaches a specific lesson or moral provides a moral behavior
Adage
A folk saying with a lesson
Allegory
A story fictional or nonfictional in which characters things and events represent qualities or concepts
Aphorism
A terse statement which expresses a general truth or moral principle. Can be a memorable summation of the authors point.
Ellipsis
The deliberate omission of a word or phrase from prose done for effect by the author
Euphemism
A more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts.
Figurative language
The opposite of literal language. It is writing that is not meant to be taken literally
Analogy
A comparison of one pair of variables to a parallel set of variables
Hyperbole
Exaggeration
Idiom
A common often used expression that doesn't make sense if you take it literally
Metaphor
Making an implied comparison not using like guys or other such words. An extended metaphor is when the metaphor is continued later in the written work. And elaborate extended metaphor is called using conceit.
Metonymy
Replacing an actual word or idea with a related word or concept
Synecdoche
A kind of metonymy when a whole is represented by naming one of its parts or vice versa
Simile
Using words such as like or as to make a direct comparison between two different things
Synesthesia
I description involving a "crossing of the senses"
Personification
Giving humanlike qualities to something that is not human
Foreshadowing
When an author gives hints about what will occur later in the story
Genre
The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic deficient of literature are prose, poetry, and drama
Gothic
Writing characterized by gloom mystery fear and death
Imagery
Word or words that create a picture in the readers mind. Usually involves the 5 senses.
Invective
A long emotionally violent attack using strong abusive language
Irony
When the opposite of what you expect to happen does
Verbal irony
When you say something and mean the opposite. If your voice tone is bitter, it is sarcasm.
Dramatic irony
When the audience of drama play or movie knows something that the character doesnt and would be surprised to find out
Situational irony
Found in the plot of the book story or movie. Sometimes it'll make you laugh because of how things turn out.
Juxtaposition
Placing things side-by-side for the purposes of comparison.
Mood
So atmosphere created by the literature and accomplished through word choice (diction).
Motif
A recurring idea in a piece of literature.
Oxymoron
When apparently contradictory terms are grouped together and suggest a paradox
Pacing
The speed or tempo of an authors writing. Writers can use devices like syntax, polysyndeton, anaphora, and meter to change the pacing.
Paradox
A seemingly contradictory situation which is usually true
Parallelism
Also known as parallel structure or balanced sentences. Is a sentence construction which places equal grammatical constructions near each other or repeat identical grammatical patterns.
Anaphora
Repetition of a word phrase or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences or clauses in a row
Chiasmus
When the same words are used twice in succession but the second time the order of the words is reversed. Also called antimetabole.
Antithesis
Two opposite or contrasting words phrases or clauses or even ideas with parallel structure
Zuegma (syllepsis)
When a single word governs or modifies two or more other words and the meaning of the first word must change for each of the other words it governs or modifies
Parenthetical idea
Parentheses are used to set off an idea from the rest of the sentence. It is almost considered an aside.. a whisper and should be used sparingly for fact rather than repeatedly
Parody
An exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes
Persona
The fictional mask or narrator that tells a story
Poetic device
A device used in poetry to manipulate sound of words sentences or lines
Alliteration
The repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of words
Assonance
The repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds
Consonance
The repetition of the same consonant sound at the end of words or within words
Onomatopoeia
The use of a word which imitates or suggests the sound that the thing makes
Internal rhyme
Went on line of poetry contains a rhyme with in a single line
Slant rhyme
When a poet creates a rhyme but the two words do not rhyme exactly
End rhyne
When the last word of two different lines of poetry rhyme
Rhyme scheme
The pattern of a poems end rhymes
Stressed and unstressed syllables
In every word of more than one syllable, one of the syllables is stressed or said with more force than the other syllables
Meter
A regular pattern to the syllables in lines of poetry
Free verse
Poetry that doesn't have much meter or rhyme
Iambic pentameter
Poetry that is written in the lines of 10 syllables alternating stressed and unstressed syllables