Personality traits. An individual's personal characteristics (physical, mental, moral) were explained by his or her "temperament", or the state of that person's "humors".
Focused on recovery and understanding of Latin and Greek classics (Humanities). Asked questions like "What is a good life? How does one live a good life? What is a human being?" This idea is at odds with Christianity because Christianity teaches us that humans are not capable of being good, while this idea suggests that we can be good. Wanted to move past memorizing things and stressed reasoning and thinking instead. Optimistic view of human nature: humans are noble and capable of perfection.
This man changed the church from within. He was a traveling Dutch monk who spread the idea of humanism; taught at Oxford.
A German monk who founded a new kind of Christianity, based no on what the pope said but on a personal understanding of the Bible.
This man married Anne Boleyn even though the Pope refused to allow it. He established the Anglican church by declaring himself head of the church. Also beheaded Sir Thomas More. Also had 6 wives (divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived).
Henry VIII's son. Ascended to the throne at age 9 (crowned before sisters because men were crowned before women). Died at age 15 from tuberculosis. English replaced Latin in the church under his rule. He also established Anglican prayer book.
Bloody Mary (Mary I)
Daughter of Henry VIII. Ascended the throne after Edward's death. She was a devout Catholic who restored papal power and ruthlessly hunted down all Potestants.
Ascended the throne after Bloody Mary. Daughter of Henry VII. Re-established the Church of England. Kept Spain at bay by pretending to consider a marriage with King Philip (King of Spain). Virgin Queen - never married, power in her independence and in playing suitors off each other. She becomes a symbol of peace, security, and prosperity, which becomes an inspiration for English writers.
Marks the end of the Renaissance. 1660 - Charles II, son of Charles I, restored to the throne.
Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet
This type of sonnet consists of an octet (8 lines) (most often abba abbba) and a sestet (6 lines) (most often cdecde or cdcdcd) (8 lines, then space or indentation, then 6 lines to follow). This type of sonnet was introduced by Sir Thomas Wyatt.
English (Shakespearean) Sonnet
This type of sonnet was first developed by Henry Howard (The Earl of Surrey), and consists of 3 quatrains and a couplet - that is, it rhymes abab cdcd efef gg.
The dilemma/ subject matter
The first section of a sonnet presents _____________________; it often raises an issue or doubt.
Answers the question
The second section of a sonnet ______________________, resolves the problem, or drives home the poem's point.
The turn (or volta)
The change in tone in the poem. Helps move forward the emotional action of the poem quickly. (happens on line 9 for Petrarchan and line 13 for Shakespearean). The word "therefore" often marks the beggining of this.
Shakespearean sonnets get more _____________ as you go/ read on/ progress through the sonnet.