Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling 6th Ed
Terms in this set (186)
Roles, individuals play over their lifetime, or lifetime pursuits.
Applies to decisions that individuals make at any point in their career about particular work, leisure, or other activities that they choose to pursue at that time.
Similar jobs found in many organizations and exist regardless of whether individuals are employed in them.
Refer to similar jobs found in many organizations.
Refers to a purposeful activity to earn money or reward and possibly tomproduce a product or service for others.
career development theory
Can serve as a guide for career counseling and problems related to career or work adjustment. Counselors often use techniques used in person counseling for career counseling. It should provide a useful way of explaining and understanding career development.
Being satisfied with one's career is one of the most importnat aspects of an individual's personal happiness
A group of logically organized laws or relationships that constitute explanation in a discipline.
theories should be:
-explicit- about their rules and theorums. Terms used to describe these rules should be clear. It should be specific not broad.
-precise- about the limitations of their predictions, its inportant to understand what the subject of the theory is.
-tested-through research, and expressed in terms of being quantative relationships- research should support the theory, use clear and measurable terms- valid.
-consistent and clear-should provide constructs that have a logical relationship to each other-not too complex
counseling and psychotherapy theories
Tend to be a subset of personality theories used to being about a desired change in feeling, thinking, or behavior,
counselors need to learn to chunk concepts or information when trying to learn, use and implement theories due to complexity of some.
counselor skills needed for career counseling
Helping skills (Rogers), career assessments, knowledge occupational information
helping skills: 4 basic conditions necessary for counsleing change.
1. unconditional positive regard.
2. genuineness-sincerity, honesty
3. congruence-voice, tone body language and verbal statements consistent or match.
4. empathy- ability to communicate to the client that the counselor understands the clients concerns and feelings from the pont of view of the client .
counselors nonverbal presence - face the client, open posture, leaning slightly toward the person, maintaining good eye contact, relaxed. (mostly people from North America)
Are used to get specific information or to help the clients describe or elaborate on certain subjects, feelings, or events.
-close ended-yes, no response and used to get a lot of information in a short amount of time.
-open ended-encourage a broader response requiring explanation- the waht, how and when or where something occurred.
statements and reflections
-Statements: rephrasing what the client said focus on the cognitive or emotional content of client's statement. --------Restating it directs attention to the situation, person, or general idea. Can reflect voice tone , gestures and facial expressions as well. Feeling reflections contain or imply an emotional word or phrase.
To request more information; "Tell me more", "Can you say more about that?"
giving information not opinion
Give clients information that is up to date , accurate and clear adn not biased. Biased information can be destructive and confusing to the client. They do not give opinions.
The client's behavior is reinforced rather than the client.
family background exploration
Exploring the role of the family in career decision making
Important intervention that provides information about the client to the client. Career development theories do not specify counseling techniques but provide a way of comprehending and organizing information that is contianed in the cousneling sessions.
1. tests: ability and achievement tests-there are correct answers and attempt to do well.
2. inventory- instruments used to solicit preference or viewpoint. No right or wrong answer
Comparing a client's score on a test or inventory with anormative sample: percentiles-populations, groups, age, etc
Test must be dependable and consistent
Does the test measure what it is suppose to?
-content validity-items reflect the are
-concurrent validity-measure against a specific criterion
-predictive validity-the future how well may do
-construct validity-more complex-do the scales make psychological sense?
Assessments play two improtant roles:
1. Tests and inventories can be used to develop theory.
2. Can provide the counselor with information that can be a means of understanding the client from the point of view of a career development theory.
John Holland developed
Self-Directed Search and Vocational Preference Inventory
tests and inventories have 3 major features:
1. selection 2. administration 3. interpretation
career counselors should know:
1. Where their clients get their fiorst jobs or where they go to work after completing career counseling.
2.Employment opportunities in local area.
3. Learn about occupations being considered by client to provide information
4.How to obtain information and evaluate for accuracy and usefulness.
Career counselings need to know:
1. descriptions of occupations 2. working conditions 3. qualifications 4. job duties 5. beginning and average salaries 6. employment outlook 7. education, training needed for the job 8. where to get more information about the job.-
Occupational Outlook Handbook, Encylopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance
Offer occupational information about a broad and representative smaple of occupations.
CD theories vary widely in the attention they direct to occupational information,
Holland's theory- provides a system using six categories using codes to dientify with occupations.Clear meaning.
Myers-Briggs-focuses on person's type and not on ocuational information.
Career Development Theory -explain how people adjust to work issues, make career choices, and change career goals as they develop.
Provides a framework for helping a client with career problems, it provides a means of conceptualizing career concerns. Basic helping skills , assessment instruments, and occupational information aid in this. Counsleing skills are used to provide feeback about tests and inventories or give information about occupations. Gives counselor idea of how they are going to help their client. Gola directedness can give counselors sense of confidence.
Goals, Career development theory, and ethics
Counselors must behave ethically
Standards of behavior developed by a group of people by which memebers should adhere. Often overlaps with laws which are enforced by governmental bodies.
1. autonomy- counselors respect that clients make their own decisions. 2. Nonmaleficence- Counselors do no harm
3. Beneficence- Counselors do not cause harm but should seek to promote health and well-being-welfare of others. 4. Justice- Fairness in dealing with clients nad other professionals ex fees, access to services, high-quality services,fair treatment of others. 5. Fidelity- Honoring commitments to clients, colleagues, and students- confidentiality which promotes trusting relationship
Ethical standards of NCDA
1. Professional relationship
2. Confidentiality, privileged communications, and privacy
3. Professional responsibility
4. Relationships with other professionals
5. Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation
6. Use of the internet in career services
7. Supervison, training, and teaching
8. Research and publications
9.Resolving ethical issues
Career development in women
The role of women has changed since the early 1960's
Culturally diverse populations
Culture- variety of groupings such as social class, religion, disabilities, age, sexial discrimination, and ethnicity- geographical or ethnic groups.
Trait and Factor Theory
Frank Parsons: foundation for trait and factor theory:Matching the assessment of a person's characteristics to a job.
a characteristic of an individual that can be measured through testing
characterists required for successful job performance
Trait and Factor : 3 steps
1. Understanding of Self- attitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions, and resource limitations and their causes
2.Knowledge of requirements, conditions, advantages, disadvantages, compensation, opportunities , and prospects of jobs.
3. True reasoning on the relation between the two
Gaining understanding of self:
tests measure past achievment, presetn ability, and future aptitude
1. aptitude tests-reveals persons probable future level of ability. (cannot predict with certainity eventual success of person.
2.ability tests-measures maximum performance- reveals , present ability to perform a task.
3. achievement-reveals how much a person has learned-specific to a given task or profession- self reports not always accurate due to modesty
Most important trait- occupational entry can be predicted more accurately from interests than from aptitude from people with many abilities
Have scales for specific occupations:
Kuder DD, Strong Interest Inventory
Predict occupational success and satisfaction
Difficult to measure-
1. general values-personal values
2. work values- related to, yet distinct from personality interests- shown have greater inflence on vocational of adolescents than did part time jobs.
(achievement, challenge, c0-workers, creativity, income, independence, lifestyle, mental challenge, prestige, security, supervision, variety, workplace)
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Rorschach, Thematic Apperception Test
Normal -give insight conceptualiztion of personality for vocational selection:
California Psychological Inventory-CPI-commonsense
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-statistical
Harrison Gough- uses 20 scales to measure aspects of personality- personality profiles
Obtaining Knowledge about the world of work
Occupational information- counselor's role is to help client gather occupational information.
1. description of occupation, the working conditions and salary.
3. trait and factor requirements for each occupation
Types of occupational information
booklets, pamphlets, books, CD's.DVDs, computer based sysems and web sites:
Occupational Handbook-most comprehensive-codes 9 digits description most important-300 occupations, O Net-950 occupations
DOT system-replaced by ONet-100 dta descriptors
organizes occupational information: definitions, and work functions.
6 categories of descriptors
1. worker characteristics
2. worker requirements
6. occupation requirements
can match client to occupations based on codes and close codes and direct client to information
Integrating information about oneself and world of work
Major goal of career counseling. Process of TF theory requires counselor to move between assessments of self and occupational information. Reaosnings and feelings need to be considered.
Career counseling can be repeated throughout lifetime
Applying TF and women
No differences in intelligence-Wechsler. Socialization and physiological differences -Underrespresented in science, technology, engineering, and math. Interests have shown to be different-social values about occupations can influence or impact- Differences are small. Be aware of how men and women differ on various traits and fctors may help couselors attend to societal pressures-attempt to maximize educational and occupational opportinities.
Applying TF to culturally diverse
Differences in work vales, and interests combined with limited access to occupational information make career choice process difficult. Being aware of such information can help the counselor .
Trait and Factor theory-concern emphasis on assessment- not final determinant of final career choice. Counsleor may be tempted to be biased based on own values, interests etc.
Its static rather than developmental-does focus on how these things change, not detailed enough.
United States Labor Market
Information on job availability, trends and growth,
salary and unemployeement rates greatly affected by type and amount of education individuals have. Social organization.
*For both sociologists and economists focus on social organizations and counselors focus on individuals - focus on these theories is indirect
Study the development, organization, and operation of human society. Study family, culture as well
Study production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Status Attainment Model
Predicts the prestige level of a person's job from an individual's social background.
Human Capital theory
Suggests that individuals invest in their own educationand training to achieve higher-paying jobs with more prestige.
organizational and societal treatment of women and minorities
-Hold different types of jobs, paid less, and have less chance of advancement.
15-24 Important to discuss attitudes toward work, and actual work demands with young clients.Discuss what they expect to get from work, ask about employer aattidues, relationships, coworkers, new skills learned, advancement opportunities for both part and full time work.
Complex tasks can help individuals increase their ability to solve complex intellectual tasks. Unchallenging job can lead to loss of intellect skills.
Status Attainment Theory
Focus: Importance of prestige, status of family ond encouragement to seek higher education. Deteremined to great extent by one's family status. Low socioeconomical -Health in poor families , lack of parental encouragement to succeed. Lack parental, peer and teacher encouragement to seek higher education. Challenge for counselors: provide support and information that will help counter sociological processes that interefer with use of intellectual abilities.
Human Capital Theory
Invest in own education and training so receive increased lifetime earnings. Like trait and factor theory HCT emphasises role of assessment of interests and abilities when selecting an occupation- differetn in that it sees career choice as lont term process and investment and focuses on income.Monetary reward. Assumes labor market is available and open equally to all workers.It does not consider job discrimination against women and people from diverse cultures in opredicting income.
structure of labor marker
Awareness about occupational information about local employers is helpful to counselor. Knowledge of labor market structure provides a rationale for assessing information.They can give clients information on wages, job stability, chances for advancement, and turnover. Help uinderstand inplications of tking dead-end jobs.
Gender role stereotyping and discrimination
Be aware-important to be attuned to women's lack of self-efficacy in academic areas, such as math and scienceand in pursuiting non traditional carers. Help examine the roles and effects of scoiety on those roles. Watch own bias.
culturally diverse and discrimination
Racism impacts earnings, access to jobs and promotions, job training and education and affects psychological health. Counselor help realize goals, stengthen work related attitides and information. Less likely to have access to counseling sources. Watch own attitude when counseling about other cultures- identify own prejudices, and help clients deal with discrimination- familiarity with affirmative action guidelinesand legal procedures, teach assertive techniques.
Work Adjustment Theory-Rene Dawis, Lloyed Lofquist
A continous and dynmic process by which a worker seeks to achieve and maintain corresposndence with a work environment.Indicated by tenure or length time at a job.
1. satisfaction- being satisfied at work-life satisfaction and well being.
2. satisfactoriness-employers satisfaction with the individual's performance.
"Satisfaction" key indicator of work adjustment." (like TF it uses clearly defined concepts and follows theoretical model) Problems with coworkees, superiors, boredom, inability and value differencesof woemn and culterally diverse populations.
Use the the three steps of TF Theory- for WAT
1. Assessing abilities, values, personality, and interests.
Abilities: "reference diminsions for skills"Abilites are viewed as encompassing aptitudes, which are predicted skills, in contrast to aquired skills.
General Aptitude Test Battery-Ability Profiler.
The nine abilities of the GATB
G-General Learning ability
N- Numerical ability
Grouping of needs; Minn. Importance Questionnaire. Values clustered with opposites. Relationship of needs to values:
Achievement, comfort,status, altruisn, safety, autonomy
Reflected in the need to make use of one's abilities and do things that give sense of accomplishment.
Comfort value is variety of needs deaking with specific aspects of work that make the job less stressful. ( being busy all the time-activity, working alone -independence, doing differetn things- variety, being paid well-compemsation, steady employeement-security, lighting, heating, space.
How one is perceived by others and the recognition one gets. Can be attained by an opportunity for advancement, recognition, or social status, authority.
How one is perceived by others but how one can help or work with others.
The importance of orderliness and predictability. Policies in fair manner, support from supervisors, training,
Opportinity to work on their own. Trying out own ideas -creativity or making decisions -responsibility.
MIQ- values and needs
Help counselor to understand a person's work experience.
How an individual with particular abilities and values interacts with his/her work situation. Ways people respind to their environment: celerity, rhythm, pace, endurance.
Concerned with the speed at which one approaches tasks.
Concerned with the effort one spends working.
Pattern of ones's effort or pace
Concerened with how long one is likely to continue working at a task
Lofquist- derived from values and abilities- expression of ability-value realtionships. Work values appear to be slighlty beter predictor of job satisfaction than interests.
Step 2: Measuring the Requirments and Conditions of Occupations
Average scores of MIQ and GATB
ability pattersn,value patterns,combining ability and value patterns
Step 3: Matching abilities, value and reinforcers
MIQ,GATB, MOCS-all helpful in identifying occupations for clients to ecplore further.
Describes the degree of fit between the person and the environment. Four qualities: flexibility, activeness, reactiveness, and perseverence.
How an individual relates to occupatinal envirnment
Ability to be tolerant of unpleasant or difficult aspects of the job
Attempt to change the environment if unpleasant
Make a change within themselves
How long tolerate adverse conditions
adaptive performance, satisfactions with change, and well being while dealing with change
1. Proactive behavior- actions taken by invidual make changes in work envirnment
2. Reactive behavior- how indioviduals make changes themselves
3. Tolerant behavior- how individuals tolerate difficult work issues when proactive and reactive do not work.
satisfaction with change
Refers to individuals being able to enjoy the challenge of dealing with change. Factors leading : cognitive ability, peesonality factors, and motivational factors, issues in workplace, managing stress all impoortant to well being.
By matching the individuals abilites and values with the Occupational Ability Patterns and Occupational Reinforcer Patterns
Attempts to increase the likelyhood of client's future job satisfaction and satisfactoriness.
Major focus of work adjustment theory:not only find occupation that is appealing to client at the moment , but one that will lead to tenure and job satisfation.
Job ajustment Counseling
A person's values and needs are not being met by the work environment.Sometimes problems at home can effect work satisfaction as well. Assess the discrepancies between the value and abilities of the individual and the ability and reinforcer patterns of the job. By further understanding the reinforcer patterns of work, the client may be able to improve his or her satisfaction level. Or, make changes in the work itself- ex independence- ask to work alone. Outside of home-hobbies,volunteer, part time work ect
nonwork envirnment- retirement
After retirement counselor helps to find satisfaction and reinforcers from other activites.
WOT useful. Counselors reinforce the effective behaviors rather than reinforce the feelings of these students.
WOT and assessments
Assessments can be used in combination. Satisfation Grid- group the importance of the 20 client needs and degree to which they are being satisfied into 9 areas.
Difficult to match scores with occuaptions using the grid. Use Dictionary of Occupational Titles or O Net or pamhlets and books.
WAT women and culturally diverse
Can help women with integrating work and family and sexual harassment.
Gender, ethnicity, national origin, religion, age, sexual orientation, and disability status are seen as inaccurate and unrelieable bases for estimating the skills, abilities, needs, values, perosnality styles, and adjustment style to a particular person."
Counselor flexibility is key- be able to adapt to the envirnment of the client so that the client's needs can be met. Identify basic abilities and needs within himself/herself and the client ex. if counselor has high need for social service and client is responsible may be frustrating.
Holland Theory of Types
Career choice and career adjustment represent an extension of a person's personality. People express themselves, their interests, and their values through teir work. Stereotypes- generally accurate. Based 6 types; realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional.
Physical demands: use tools, machines, or animals that the individual manipulates. Need technical competancies; fix machines, repair electronics, drive cars trucks etc. The ability to woek ith things is more important than ability to interact with others. In counseling; like specific suggestions, practicle soutions. Women may encounter resistance and harassment from emtn in realistic work environments. Be sensitve to women.
People search for solutions. Math, science, analytical-computer programmer, physician, mathmatician, biologist. science teacher, vet, research and development.Like to work independently , puzzles, problem solving- do not like supoervising others or dealing directly with personal problems but like to search for solutions to the problems.
Free, open, encouraging creativity and personal expression. Musicians, artists, freelance writers. Work envirnment encourages personal and emotional expression, unsystmeatic, rely on emotions in career choices.
Encourages people to be flexible and understanding of each other, where people can work with others through helping, kindness, idealism, friendliness, generosity. Social service, mental health professions, special education, elementary teacher, counselors etc.
People manage and persuade others to attain organizational or personal goals. Finance, econmics,sales, politics, provide for power, like to use verbal skills to sell, persuade. Prefers to manage over helping.
Organization and planning-office, keep records, file papers, book keeping Values money, being dependable, and ability to follow. Like being in control of the situation. Relationships directed toward accomplishing tasks.
code- three letter- No real work environment is purely one type. Measured through Vocational Preference Inventory, Self Directed Search.
Constructs to Holland's Types
Four important constructs for conceptualizing these types: congruence, differentiation, consistency, and identity. These refer to the relationship between the personality and the environment-congruence, the realtionship between and the realtive importance of types -differentiation, and the relationship of the types with each other-consistency.
Knowledge of identity is important ot have as well.
Congruence the most important of Holland's concepts and the most widely researched.
Relationship of personality to environment. The more similar the personality is to the environment, the more congruent the relationship. ex social types tend to enjoy working in social environment, investigative enjoy investigative envirnment. SRA is most congruent with SRA envirnment and less congruent with SRA one.Confruence decreases as the similarity between the code and the person and environment decreases.
Environments and people differ how clearly they belong to one or two types. Some people may predominately resemble one type whereas others may be quite undifferentiated and have interests and competencies across all six types. Most people have one, two or three dominant types.
Some environments allow for more freedom of movement than others. The job allows for opportunities to work in a vareity of environments. ex teacher; research (I), teach (social), consult (enterprising) is undifferentiated.
Less movement or freedom at work- Realsitic envirnment-assembly line worker.
Undifferentiated people are likely to have difficulty making career decisons. May need to help these clients differentiate.
Refers to the similarity or dissimilarity of types. Some types have more in common with others. Ex social/Artistic whereas social/ realistic are inconsistent- less in common. Also applies to environments-some environments require skills and interests that are generally inconsistent. Aritist/Conservative-numbers rarely seen together . These types may be ab;e to find niche for themselves. Not a goal of counseling whereas differentiation and congruence can be goals- its more of a subtle concept.
Means that the environment requires types of interests and abilities that rarely are required for the same job.
consistancy of aspirations
Some clients may have a variety of aspirations for the future that vary intheir degree of consistency. Knowing what the client daydream about, deisre, aspire to rpovides useful information.
Refers to the clarity and stability of a person's current and future goals. It also refers to the stability of the working environment. It does not relate directly to a typology and measure through insrument called My Vocational Situation -MVS- counsleing interview helpful as well. Can be important goal of CC. ex Identity may occur when goal of congruence is met.
Hollands Theory attractive because:
defined clearly and simply and directly related to the practice of vocational counseling
Holland's Theory and occupational information
Helps to integrate occupational information into the counseling process by dividing them into six types.
Holland's and assessments
Inventories: development of theory, use with individuals in need of career assistance.
Women are most likely to have low scores on R and hogh scores on S.
More hispanic and AA working in realistic jobs. May be due to being eposed to role models in low paying jobs.
Myers -Briggs Type Theory
A psychological theory based on works of Carl
gusta Jung. Individuals use perception and judgement to view their world. Typology-four ways people use perception and judgement . Was not deisgned to be a theory but popular with career counselors because they find it is applicable to their work with clients. Used as apersonlity theory. 4 bipolar dimensions; extroversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judgement/perception.
Individuals view of the world:
extraversion- focus on outer world
introversion-focus on inner world
How perceive their surroundings and make judgements or decisons about their observations.
perceiving and judging
The way individuals observe their world and make decisons based on their perceptions. Individuals take in information(perceive) and then nakes a decision ( judges) it ex. watching a movie
Two ways to percieve: sensing/intuition
-Sensing: taking in info through the use of the senses.-direct: prefer to observe through senses. Focus is on events that happen immediatly around them.
-Intuition: use of unconscience, gut level indirect, have good memory for detail and are able to make clear observations, insights- perceive meanings-future events or and connecting events to each other.- abstract., imaginative, creative.
Two ways to judge: thinking/feeling
-thinking:analyzing and being objective abot the observed event.Logic, analysis
-feeling: is subjective related to ones's own values. Based on values- concerned with impact of the judgement
combination perceiving and judging
-sensing and thinking-focus on collecting facts-law, business, management etc
-sensing and feeling- make decisons based on feelings
selves and others, medical field, social work, geaching children, customer service
-intuition and feeling:concerend with future personal warm, and insoired, creative approach-humans needs not objects-clergy, teach college, high school,advertising
-intuition and thinking- analysis -solving problems, theoretical -business, scientific research, computing
It's important to know not only how clients perceives and judges but also know which process is more important.
Some people prefer to make decisons based on few facts (judgement), otheres prefer to weigh many facts (perception), Percieve attitude continue to take in information and not decide. People whu use judgement are apt to have a sense of order in their lives whearas people who use perceptionhave less of a need for order and less of a need for decisding what to do next.
Sixteen Type Combinations
MB Typology the diffeetn ways judging and perceiving , the preference for judgement or perception and the preference for introversion or extraversion interact with each other: Four bi-polar diminsions
dominant and auxiliary processes
-dominant-most important concept
-auxiliary-second most important concept
-extroverts- last letter of code is dominant
-introverts-the last letter indicates auxillary and second code is dominant
MB use in counseling
occupational choices that fit types some occupations can fit more than one type.
MB and assessment
More than any other theory the inventory is most closely tied to the conceptualiztion process that a coundselor uses with a client.
falsification of type
Sometime opressed populations- environmental influences can distort of falsify it. Individuals who ae taught to respond in a certain way may learn and outwardly behave as one type, whereas inwardly their true type is being frustrated.
Life Span Theory
Career development, concerns the growing and changing ways that an individual deals with career issues over lifspan.
Childhood career development-Super's Model of CD of Children
up to 12 years- foucs not on career development
Super's Model - developed a model of how children develop a concept of themselves, includes planning, career decision making, and time perspective.
1. development of interest and self control
2. curiosity- saitisfied through exploration
3. exploration leads to aquisition of information
To make career decisons children:
Nedd; time persepective- sense of future,with development of self-concept will lead to planful decision making
Derives from child's exploratory behavior which leads to aquiring occupational information, imitating key figures, and developing interests.
The most basic of all needs and drives. Curiosity and fantasy should be encouraged.
Four periods of cognitive development:
1.sensorimotor: birth-2 years-attend to onjects and events around them-
2. pre-operational-2 to 7-Learn to add, subtract etc- egocentric younger than 7.
3. concrete operations- 7-11 years-think in concrete terms
4. Formal operation-12 think abstractly
8 stages of of psychosocial development
4th stage- industry vs inferiority
Cognitive Growth- cognitve map of occupations
Gottfredson- Uses Blooms' s Taxononmy to describe the characteristics of the learning process. Move from concrtete to abstract thinking.
Gottfredson: how hereditary and bioligical factors influence choices that individuals make as they deal with the complex world.
- Active participants in their reltionships between their biological selves and their environment which is constantly changing.. Interests, attitiudes, and skills more influenced by environments that people share with others. Vocational interests are affected by relationship between genetics and environment. Interests influenced by their world whereas temperaments and intellect influenced by genetics. As people interact with their environment their genetically nased temperaments become more stable , or traited. As they repeat experiences, traits develop.
internal genetic compass
An internal guide as to what they like or prefer.
genes drive genetics theory
Children's learning process - as children get older they take a more active role in choosing, directing, and understanding their environment.
Genes and environment
As individuals grow they make observations about themselves, their personalities, their skills and their interests-niches-life settings and roles they occupy.
The process by which young people eliminate occupational alterantives that do not fit into their self-concept.-dont fit into social space. 4 stages: Stage 1- orientation to size and power, orientation to sex roles, orientation to social valuation. 4. orientation to internal unique self
Stage 1: Orientation to size and power 3-5 years
Kids view things concretely-simple terms
Stage 2: Orientation to sex roles 6-8 years
Think in concrete terms , and make simple distinctions, develop tolerable-sex type boundary
Stage 3:Orientation to social valuation 9-13 years
4th grade become more aware of peers, recognizing relationships among education, income and occupations.
Stage 4: Orientation to the internal unique self 14+
Have idea, similar to adults of which occupations are acceptable to them.
Throughout the circumscription process individuals put aside occupations that do not fit them. When they are ready to make occupational chouices, they are ready to consider compromising.
Three factors of compromise
1. Why do young people know so little about how to enter or get education for work?
2. How does the behavior of individuals affect their access to educational or occupational information or work?
3. Which factors in the process of selecting an occupation are young people most and least willing to give p when they cannot obtain their first choice of occupation or work?
Individuals will sacrifice interests and prestige before they will sacrifice sex type.
Compromise refers to having to make trade-offs among sex type, prestige, and interests:small, medium large sacrifices p. 192
Although vocational interests are impoortant to almost all individuals, they may be overshadowed by their concern for prestige or sex type, unless the prestige and sex type of available alternatives are close to acceptable.
Occupational information through the educational system.
1. infusion into the classroom;films, oral reports
2. group activities; skits, crossword puzzles et
3. community involvement
assessments for children
Children need to be able to a future and to have a sense of how far away college or work is with regard to time.
Super's Late Growth Stage
Different values develop at different times, this pweriod of growth evolves into the transition phase (18) as it prepares them for starting crystalization .
Development of capacities 11-14 years
The educational process becomes more important in their preparation for work. They can assess their capacities.
Development of values
Different values emerge and become more important at variuos times in the life span. 15-16 able to take goals and values into consideration when making career decisions.
Transition to the Crystallizing Substage 17-18 years
Decisions about whether to go to college and, of college is the choice, what major in. They ae aware that they need to pay attention to issues such as job availability.
Super's Late Growth Stage
Level 3: interests
Level 4: Internal processes and Capacities
Make use of sequence. Starts at 11 years-awareness of ability to accomplish certain tasks well and awarenes of having difficulty with other tasks.
Level 5: Interaction
14 years- value occupations differently and see occupations as varying greatly in prestige
Level 6: Systematic Interactions
Can make complex career decisions
Super describes vocational maturity 5 components:
1. Orientation to vocational choice-concern about career choice.
2. Information and planning about a preferred occupation- specific information that the individual has about the occupation.
3.Consistency of vocational preference
4. Crystallization of traits
5. The wisdom of voctional preference-relationship between choice and abilities, activites and interests.
Carrer planning scale- measures how much thought individuals have given to a variety of information seeking activities.
Willingness to look for information- use resource to explore options-focus on attitudes toward work if reluctant
The ability to use knowledge and thought to make career plans.
World of Work Information
1. knowledge of importnat developmental tasks, such as when others should ecplore their interests and abilities, how others learn about their jobs, why people change jobs.
2. Kowledge of job duties, as well as job application behaviors.
- knowing accuracy of information students have about work is important.
Knowledge of preferred occupational group
Knowledge of occupation they want to enter can be helpful in determing what type of counseling should be offerred.
A concept that is part of Super's view on career maturity. "Mixed affective and cognity entity best assesed by combining personal, self report, and objective data as in comparing aptitudes of the individual with the aptitudes typical people in the occupation.
Cousnelor needs to accuratley judge students aptitiudes and those required by the job so as not to mislead the student.
Encompasses : career planning, career exploration, career decision making, and world of work information.
identity and context
4 identity statuses at any given time:diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, achievement
Having few clear ideas of what one wants and not concerned about the future. I dont know what I want .
A time, often more than several months, in which one explores options while wanting a direction, but not having one.I dont know what I want, but I want to find out.
Making a choice based on family tradition, without exploring other options. I know what I want. and I follow established paths.
Knowing what one wants and making plans to attain occupational goal. I know what I want and have made plans already.
As individuals advance in this they tend to have positive attitudes and an openess to a variety of occupations.
Develop in both educational and social context
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