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bio II final
Terms in this set (175)
T or F seeds can lie dormant for years
T or F a fern is a seedless vascular plant
T or F leaves increase the surface area for photosynthesis
T or F gymnosperms do not produce seeds
is the gametophyte stage dominant in bryophytes?
pollen is usually dispersed by__
Bryophytes are small because they lack ___
non vascular plants are commonly called
which phylum includes ferns?
___ transports water in vascular plant
Bryophytes require ___ for fertilization to occur
seeds contain ___ inside of a protective coat
embryo and nutrient supply
Angiosperms produces seeds that are often enclosed by ___
___ transports sugars in vascular plants
Which phylum are the moss in?
most plants have vascular tissue; these constitute the ___ plants
a ___ is an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat
___ are organs that anchor vascular plants
describe two things that are unique to angiosperms that help them in reproduction
a flower that attracts pollinators or a fruit that allows seeds to be dispersed
what is the difference in reproduction between a blueberry bush and a pine tree?
in a blueberry bush, flowers are produced and the seeds are enclosed by a fruit. pine tree does not have either of these things
why d0 you think plants grow more slowly in the winter? is it the light, temperature, or both?
Plants grow toward light, and light source is essential to absorb for the process of photosynthesis. In the winter, environments lack ample light source and the sun goes down much earlier so this affects their growth. Also, extreme temperatures either low or high can affect the process of food production. Plants grow best at a comfortable temperature depending on environment.
____ meristems are located at the tips of stems and roots
which plant organ is a beet?
which type of vascular tissue allows the movement of water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves?
the diffusion of water vapor from a plant is called__
lateral meristems are found in plants that exhibit ___ growth
what structure protects the root as it pushes its way through the soil?
which plant organ helps to anchor them in the soil and absorb water and minerals?
___ is a passageway for oxygen and carbon dioxide. they are holes in the underside of a leaf
secondary growth is an increase in the __ of the plant
width or girth
which part of the root would you look in if you wanted to find a cell going through mitosis
zone of cell division
vascular tissue arrangement is directly related to the stem's ability for __ growth
which type of vascular tissue carries sugars to all parts of the plant
what are plant cell walls made of?
the ground tissue cells called __ cells are the most common type of plant cell and carry out photosynthesis
which type of plant tissue is for protection
vascular plants have a specialized circulation system composed of ____ and ____
xylem and phloem
the process where water escapes though stomata is called ___
T or F guard cells are responsible for closing and opening the lenticellular maculation
T or F the shoot system consists of the underground portion of the plant
T or F some kinds of plants live without ever making contact with the soil
T or F all plant cells contain secondary cell walls
T or F the alternate form of leaf arrangement is the most common of the three types
T or F trichomes can protect a plant from predation by herbivores
What are the two types of vascular tissue found in vascular plants and what is carried by each kind of tissue?
The two types of vascular tissue are xylem and phloem. Xylem transports water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves while the phloem transports carbohydrate products and foods.
Explain why the carnation changed colors in Experiment #2 in the Plant Circulation lab.
Through the flower's vascular system, the water was transported through the stem and to the leaves. Because this water had been changed colors, it was able to prove to us that water was in fact taken up through the leaves.
Which celery stalk had the broken column of water in the stem, what broke the water column, and how could you tell that the water column was broken?
The celery stalk that was dried out had the broken water column. I think the column was broken by the dry lack of moisture. I could tell it was broken, because this celery had a harder time transporting the red dye.
which group in the phylum cnidaria includes "jellies" with rounded medusae?
a land snail, a clam, and an octopus all share
membership in phylum mollusca
have a mouth that is separate from the anus and segments
An active marine predator is found possessing these characteristics: a series of tentacles (eight of them modified from the foot) on its head, a highly developed nervous system, and elaborate eyes. To which of the following animal classes does this organism most likely belong?
Jellies and corals are members of the same _____, all members of which _____.
phylum ... have special stinging cells on their tentacles
In most insects, gas exchange is accomplished by _____.
a tracheal system with spiracles, trachea, and tracheoles
Tapeworms are highly specialized worms that make their living as endoparasites. To which of the following phyla do the tapeworms belong?
Humans most frequently acquire trichinosis (infection by Trichinella spiralis) by
eating undercooked pork.
Leeches are members of the phylum _____.
corals are most closely related to which group
In arthropods, molting is necessary because _____.
the hard exoskeleton cannot grow
Planarians lack dedicated respiratory and circulatory systems because
none of their cells are far removed from the gastrovascular cavity or from the external environment because they are flat.
A sponge's structural materials (spicules, spongin) are manufactured by the
In sponges which cell captures food?
choanocyte or collar cell
An unidentified species of animal displays the following characteristics: bilateral symmetry, a complete digestive system, an open circulatory system, distinct body segmentation, it has six jointed walking legs, and it molts when it grows. To which of the following animal phyla does this species most likely belong?
sponges are most accurately describes as?
all of the listed responses are correct
Which of the following describe(s) echinoderms?
Tubefeet provide motility in most species.
Sponges feed by _____.
filtering small particles from water
A terrestrial mollusc without a shell would be called a _____.
_____ are members of the phylum _____ and feed by _____.
Sea anemones ... Cnidaria ... using stinging cells to capture small animals that venture too close to them
A major characteristic of arthropods is _____.
a chitinous exoskeleton and jointed appendages
Consider the following list of animals: giant squid, earthworm, largemouth bass, snail, tapeworm, coral, and starfish. The two that belong to the same phylum are the _____, and their phylum is _____.
giant squid and snail ... Mollusca
What reproductive structures does a blueberry bush have that a pine tree does not have and how do these structures help the blueberry bush reproduce?
A blueberry bush produces a flower and fruit, while a pine tree does not have either. The blueberry itself covers and protects the seeds while aiding in dispersing the seeds for further reproduction.
Describe the main reproductive differences between a moss plant or a fern, a pine tree, and an apple tree.
Both moss plant/fern produce spores and pine trees use seeds. An apple tree is the main difference because it produces fruit that covers and helps spread seeds
What are the names of the male and female parts of the flower, and what is produced by the male and the female parts?
Male parts produce pollen and female parts produce eggs. Male parts include stamen which is the anther and filament. Female parts include carpel which is stigma, stile, and ovary.
Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?
the shelled, amniotic egg
What is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes extant birds from other extant vertebrates?
Sharks are classified in which class?
The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes
Most reptiles are ______ which means they cannot regulate their own body temperature.
cold blooded and ??
If an animal has hair, feeds its young milk, an lays eggs it is a ______.
Chordates have ___________ symmetry
Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
Some sharks are viviparous, which means that _____.
the young develop within the female's body
Which of the following animals is an amphibian?
Habitat loss, the spread of a fungal disease, climate change, and pollution are causing severe population declines and extinction in _____.
The gill flap, or operculum, was an important adaptation for fish because it helps with _____.
maintaining a supply of oxygen
Pick the example of the invertebrate chordate from the list below.
a kangaroo or opossum is a___
The opossum is an example of a(n) _____ mammal.
a sea star is an invertebrate
turtles are reptiles
a frog is an invertebrate
Amphibians can lay their eggs on land without fear of them drying out because they lay eggs with a flexible shell.
List the four key characteristics of chordates.
dorsal, hollow nerve chord
pharyngeal slits or clefts
muscular, post-anal tail
What is the main difference between the skeleton of a shark and a trout?
The skeleton of a trout is made of bone and the skeleton of a shark is made of cartilage.
Which dissection specimen was a vertebrate and what made it be classified as a vertebrate?
The frog was a vertebrate. It is classified as this because it has an internal skeleton, or backbone.
How would you tell the difference between a reptile egg and a bird egg?
Reptiles lay eggs that have a flexible shell while bird eggs have a hard shell.
Positive feedback differs from negative feedback in that
the positive feedback's effector responses are in the same direction as the initiating stimulus rather than opposite to it.
What covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body?
proteins for connective fibers.
Food processing, absorption, and distribution in your body are mainly accomplished by the _____ systems.
digestive and circulatory
Tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up
tendons connect bones at joints
ligaments are what kind of connective tissue?
Do hormone signals functions faster than nerve signals?
_____ feedback most directly maintains homeostasis because it _____.
Negative ... tends to keep a system at a desirable "set point"
all of the above are correct
is a characteristic of animals that have a fairly constant body temperature.
Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by
The cells lining the air sacs in the lungs make up a
simple squamous epithelium.
Which of the six major types of connective tissue has a rigid matrix that contains collagen and calcium salts?
__________ is the study of the biological functions an organism performs.
Which of the following are connective tissues?
adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood
__________ animals generate heat by metabolism.
Groups of cells performing a common function is called a ______.
Several tissues working together to perform a common function is called an organ.
In vertebrates the space between cells is filled with blood.
Explain what happens when your diet is deficient in calcium.
If you do not have enough calcium in your diet it comes from your bones, which will make them weaker. If this is combined with a lack of weight bearing exercise and bone loss caused by menopause, then the disease osteoporosis can result.
Explain what happened to your egg or bone in lab this week, why it happened, and what caused it.
My egg totally transformed from a hard shell into a totally flimsy dissolved shell. This happened because the acetic acid gradually removed all of the calcium from the shell. The longer the shell stayed in the acetic acid the softer it became until it dissolved into a thin film.
Interstitial fluid once it has entered the lymphatic vessels is called ____.
One function of the integumentary system is to make vitamin _____.
List the three major types of blood vessels.
arteries, capillaries, veins
When your body needs calcium for the blood where does it come from assuming the diet is inadequate?
It begins to remove stored calcium in the bones or skeletal system.
List the two components of the central nervous system.
brain and spinal cord
The organs that produce sperm are the ovaries.
When you shiver your muscular system is _____.
The body system that forms the external body covering is called the ____ system.
Which type of muscle is voluntary?
The kidneys are part of which system?
Which type of muscle would propel food through the digestive tract?
The integration and command center of the body is the _____.
central nervous system
Place the following regions of the skin in the correct order from top (most superficial) to bottom (deepest).
Which system eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body?
Weight bearing exercise will do what for the skeleton?
The tube that leads into the lungs is called the ____.
The digestive process depends on _____.
Which pigment is most responsible for dark skin color?
The system that returns interstitial fluid back to the blood is the ___ system.
What kinds of cells does the skeletal system make?
Which type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?
T or F acid rain will remove calcium from the soil just like it removed calcium from the egg in lab
T or F competition may limit the growth of both species involved
deforestation and herbicide use will increase the loss of nutrients from the soil
the competitive exclusion principle states that 2 species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical
fertilizer use will alter the nitrogen cycle balance
list the 3 types of symbiotic relationships
which pH did the radish seeds grow best at?
the nitrogen cycle relies heavily on
the phosphorous cycle depend on the weathering of?
the type of symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is not significantly affected is called?
the gradual colonization of barren rocks is called
what 2 processes does the carbon cycle depend on
cellular respiration and photosynthesis
thorns and poisons are a defense against?
which type of consumer preys on the producers?
how are humans altering the carbon cycle?
burning fossil fuels
which of the following trophic levels would have the lowest population size?
what drives the global water cycle?
a ___ includes all the organisms inhabiting a particular area?
herbivores eat ___
____ may occur when a shared resource is limited
how much of the energy stored at each trophic level is available to the next level?
energy flows into ecosystems in the form of ___ and exits in the form of ___
light energy, heat
food chains interconnect forming ___
what process is essential for recycling nutrients in an ecosystem?
popcorn trees are an example of an alien species
dams alter ecosystems both upstream and downstream
light pollution can affect ecosystems
wetlands filter pollution and limit flooding
desertification removes the base of the food chain
____ is the variety of life on earth
which type of resource cannot be replentished?
alien species in an area can cause __?
modern farming practices reduce the loss of __?
____ _____ produce greenhouse gases
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