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anatomy and physiology week 2
Terms in this set (67)
this bond involves a sharing of electrons between the atoms in the molecule
When electrons are transferred from one atom to another
atoms or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge
cation: + charge anion: - charge
when two or more atoms unite
substances that contain molecules formed by the union of two or more different atoms (simple and complex)
blend of 2 or more substances
component substances remain evenly distributed
it is homogeneous
settling occurs, particles are large and heavy. (red blood cells in blood plasma) & heterogeneous.
molecules do not dissolve but remain distributed
Compounds formed by ionic bonds that release ions when they are in solution are called electrolytes.
conduct an electric current
A balance exists in the acid or alkalinity of body fluids.
prevents sharp changes in hydrogen ion concentration
Atoms of an element may exist in several forms
If the isotope is unstable, it can disintegrate, giving off rays of atomic particles (produced radiation)
Compounds that characterize living things （contain carbon)
simple sugars called monosaccharides, molecules made from simple sugars linked together.
Made from glycerol. Typically found as fat in the body
eg. Phospholipids: contain phosphorous. These lipids make up the cell membrane
the structural materials of the body, found in muscle, bone and connective tissue. (contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.)
Amino acids are the "building blocks" of protein (only 20 amino acid in the body)
a building block for DNA, contain nitrogenous base, sugar, phosphate group
travels to the ribosomes where it attaches to a ribosome (rRNA) and protein
carries a specific amino acid that can be added to the protein chain at the ribosome
inside the cell equals outside the cell
breaking down of RBCs
shriveling of the cell
bulk movement of materials INTO the cell
the engulfing of relatively large particles by the cell membrane and the movement of these particles into the cell.
Droplets of fluid are engulfed by the cell membrane. "Cell drinking"
Receptor mediated endocytosis
the intake of substances using specific binding sites in the PM
movement of materials OUT of the cell.
1. the substances from which all matter is made.
2. 96% of the human body is made of Oxygen, Carbon,
Hydrogen and Nitrogen.
3. Atoms are the subunits of elements which cannot be
broken down from ordinary chemical and physical
positively charged electrical particles.
Gives you the atomic number
= atomic mass - atomic number
negatively charged (equal in # to protons)
contains protons & neutrons
Compounds that characterize living things
They contain carbon
The outer limit of the cell, or cell membrane.
Made up of phospholipids, some molecules of cholesterol are located between the phospholipids.
Proteins float within the phospholipid bilayer.
Act as receptors for materials coming to the cell.
Some act to move materials in/out of the cell.
It is selectively permeable!!
substance that fills the cells and holds all the contents
liquid portion of the cytoplasm (a suspension of nutrients, minerals, enzymes and other specialized material in water
little organs" that form different structures are also found in the cytoplasm
control center" of cell, contains the genetic material.
Has chromosomes that contain information that govern cellular activities
The nucleolus or "little nucleus" job is to assemble ribosomes which in turn manufacture proteins.
large organelles, round or bean shaped. Inside the mitochondria the energy from the nutrients is converted to energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP.
formulates mucous, sorting and modifying for export from the cell
network of membranes located between the nuclear membrane and plasma membrane
synthesis of lipids
ribosomes are attached to its surface to manufacture proteins
Ribosomes: formation of proteins occurs on ribosomes.
contain digestive enzymes. Destroy old and damaged cells
rod-shaped bodies near the nucleus that function in cell division.
membrane bound bubbles used for storage and to move materials in and out of the cell
small hairlike projections that wave, creating movement of the fluid around the cell (respiratory tract and female reproductive tract)
long, whiplike extension from the cell.
Only found in sperm in the human body
At the ribosomes the genetic message in the mRNA is decoded to build amino acid into long chains that form proteins
the constant movement of molecules from a region of relatively high concentration to one of lower concentration
the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane.
is the passage of water containing dissolved materials through a membrane as a result of a mechanical "pushing" force
1. molecules that travel against the natural flow.
2. This movement requires ATP and proteins in the cell membranes that act as transporters for the molecules.
3. Allows the cell to take in what it needs for the surrounding fluids and release materials from the cell.
4. The membrane is "selectively permeable".
1. DNA condenses - chromosomes become visible
2. Spindles form
3. Nuclear membrane breaks down
1. Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
2. Spindles attach to the centromere of the chromosomes
1. Sister chromatids split apart from each other
2. Chromosomes move to opposite side of the cell
Telophase & Cytokinesis (mitosis)
1. Chromosomes are at opposite sides of the cell
2. Cells start to pinch off from one other
In animals, a cleavage furrow pinches the cells
In plants, a cell plate separates the two
3. Cytoplasm splits into two, creating two genetically identical daughter cells
1. Produces 4 haploid daughter cells
2. Hereditary material is exchanged
Sperm cells and egg cells are made (gametes)
DNA replicates; chromosomes double.
Chromatin begins to condense.
1. Chromosomes become visible.
2. Nuclear envelope disintegrates
3. Spindle fibers form
4. Homologous chromosomes line up next to each other to
form a tetrad.
5. Homologous chromosome: one of a pair of
chromosomes that share similar characteristics
6. Crossing over occurs, where segments of chromosomes are exchanged between homologous chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
Centromeres attach to spindle fibers.
The way they line up also contributes to genetic diversity
Homologous chromosomes separate; spindle fibers pull them to opposite sides of the cell.
Sister chromatids are still together (unlike in mitosis)
Telophase I & Cytokinesis
Spindle fibers break down
Nuclear membrane reforms
Cell membranes pinched off to form 2 daughter cells
Each daughter cell has a complete set of homologous chromosomes
End of Meiosis I.
Sister chromatids split and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Spindle fibers form
Telophase II and Cytokinesis
Four daughter cells form.
Spindle fibers break down.
Nuclear membranes reform.
Each daughter cell has (n) chromosomes- Haploid!
They are now gametes.
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