Nervous System Chapter 6 of BioMed Review Cathrine Follis

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nodes of ranviergap between oligodendrocytesmyelinated neuronswhite matterunmyelinated neuronsgrey matterepidural spacebetween durra matter and wall of vertebra or skull bones;blood vessels and a lower of adipose.subarachnoid spacefilled w/CSFEpineuriumout most layer, covers outside of nervePerineuriumWraps group of neuron axons into bundles (fascicles)EndoneuriumWraps around each individual neuron axonCervical pleus C1/C5diaphram, phrenic nerve, shoulder larynx and neckBrachial Plexus C5/T1under clavical,Axillary Nervedeltoid and teres minorRadial NerveTricep muscle and extensor muscle of forearm;wrist dropMedian Nerveflesor muscle of forearm;flex hand, abduct the hand and index fingermusculocutaneous nerveflexor muscles of arm, forearmulnar nervewrist, hand muscles. Claw hand, inability to spread fingers apart.Lumbar plexus L1/l4low abdomen, anterior thight, hip adductors; inability to extend leg, flex hip or adduct hip.Sacral Plexus L4/S4form sciatic nerve L4/L3 poster thigh, glutes, lateral aspect of leg and foot, posterior aspect of leg and foot; inability flex knee extend hip, plantar dorsiflexion. Sciaticalesser occipitalC2/C3 posterior lateral neckGreater auricularC2/c3 ear TMJphrenicC3-C5 diaphramMusculocutaneousC5-T1 brachial plexus forearmMedianC6-T1 anterior and lateral ⅔ of the handUlnarC8-T1 carpi ulnaris and anterior posterior handradialC5/T1 forearm and handAxillaryC5-C6 deltoid and teres minor musclesDorsal ScapularC5SubscapularC5-C6SuprascapularC5-C6 supraspinatus infraspinatusLong ThoracicC5-C7 serratusPectoralC5-T1 Pectorals major and minor musclesilliohypogastricL1illioiinguinalL1GenitofemoralL1-L2FemoralL2-L4Lateral Femoral CutaneousL2-L3ObturatorL2-L4SciaticL4-S3TibialL4-S3peromeal neveL4-S2superior glutealL4-S2Inferior glutealL5-S24 regions of braincrebrum, crebellum, diencephalon, brain stemVentriclesproduce CSFhow many ventricles2 lateral one third ventricle and the forth ventriclecranial menigesdura matter, arachnid mater, pia materdural foldfalx crebri, tentorium crebelli, falx crebilliCSFcushion, transport nutrients and waste made in ventriclesMedula oblangataregulate heart rate, heart contractions, distribution of blood flow, pace of breathingponsrespiratory rhythm center, assist in respiration, manages depth of breathing, transition from inspiration to expirationmescencephalonportion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation. tectum, red nucleus, substantia nigra, reticular activating system.cerebellumbalance, auditory, motor movements, postural muscle, equilibrium.Diencephalonis made up of four distinct components: the thalamus, the subthalamus, the hypothalamus, and the epithalamus. The hypothalamus is an integral part of the endocrine system, link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.Epithalamusconnection between the limbic system to other parts of the brain. Include the secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland (involved in circadian rhythms) and regulation of motor pathways and emotions.Thalamussmall structure within the brain located just above the brain stem between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. function of the thalamus - relay motor and sensory signals to the cerebralhypothalmusswallow, hunger, thirst body temp, heart rate, bp, circadian rhythms, motor responses. link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary glandprefrontal cortexprocess emotions, interpret current events, predicting future situations or consequences, problem solving and placing a time relationship on events.frontal lobecontrols voluntary movements of skeletal musclesparietal lobetouch pressure pain, vibration, taste, temptemporal lobehearing and smell stimuli,occipital lobereceives processes visual stimuliOlfactorysmell Iopiticvision IIoculomotorpupil constriction and dilation; eye movement IIItrochlearsuperior oblique eye movement IVtrigeminalfacial, muscle of mastication Vabducenslateral eye movement VIfacialtaste anterior ⅔ VIIvestibulochochlearbalance, hearing VIIIglossopharyngealswallowing, saliva, throat sensation IXvaguspharynx larynx digestive organs heart activity Xaccessorymotor control of SCM and trapezius muscleHypoglossaltongue movement x11Glasgow coma scalerate level of consciousness max score 15 min 3romberg's testtest for swaying or unsteadiness when eyes closed compared to eyes closed.broca's aphasiacomprehends but can't speak, expressivewernicke's aphasiapoor comprehension, receptiveglobal aphasialack of comprehension and speechdysphoniaunable to produce sound and speechdysarthrianeurological mouth movement impairmentagnosiainability to identify objectsanosmialoss of smellhemianipialoss of vision in left or right field of visionaniscoriapupils don't dilatenystagmusrapid uncontrollable movements of eyetrigeminal neuralgiastabbing facial painbell's palsyparaylsis of facial muscles. Temporary, last few weeksfroment's signtest for palsy of the ulnar nerveclonusupper motor neuron lesion or hyperthyroidismHypotoniapoor muscle tone and strengthfoot dropleason to L5 or peripheral neuropathyscissoring gateMS, cerebral palsy, spinal cord compressionwaddling gatehip dysplasia, muscular dystrophyHemiplegic gateasymmetrical gate, corticopsinal tract damagedysdiadochokinesiainability to perform rapid movement, cerebellar lesionanaesthesialoss of all sensationHyposenthesiadecreased sensationParesthensiapins and needles prickly sensationbattles signsbrushing behind ears, fracture on posterior portion of skull. underlying brain traumabrudzinskiinvoluntary lifting of leg, menigitiskernig's signspainful extension of knee while lying supine. One of the physically demonstrable symptoms of meningitis. Severe stiffness of the hamstrings causes an inability to straighten the leg when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees.Lhermitte's Signcervical spondylosis, dis herniation, tumor. electrical sensation down back into limbs. sensation that passes down the back into the arms and legs when you move or flex the neck. The sensation usually lasts only a few seconds.views stenosis of bld vessels in neck brain or looks for aneurysmscerebral angiographyused to diagnose a stroke patientCTdetects strok, aneurysms and TIACT angiographydiagnose bain leasions, epilepsy turmors, abscessesEEG