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a process whereby information is channeled by a sender to a receiver through some medium


purposeful or goal directed


emotional state of the sender


without awareness

downward communication

directives; task information;feedback;sense of mission

upward communication

feedback; warning; key stakeholders; morale and performance

lateral communication

coordination; sharing; multidisciplinary; emotional support


any individual in a position through which messages must pass plays the role of gatekeeper to some extent

boundary spanner

an individual whose interactions include numerous contacts in the external environment

opinion leader

a person who has "the ability to informally influence other individuals attitudes or behavior in a desired way with relative frequency.


an individual who connects communication subsystems or networks in the organizaiton.

2 standards of controlling

responsiveness competence

administration dichotomy

Study of the similarities and differences of the two in order to analyze the disparities and/or likenesses between the two seemingly opposite fields.

legislative veto and consultations

favorite tool prior to 1983 supreme court ruling as one-house vetoes as unconstitutional


defines & limits


control over resources


information gathering and review

informal contacts



high public recognition & esteem, investigate complaints, resolute citizen-bureaucracy problems, typically address minor issues/abuses


citizens refuse to comply with public policy


characteristics of an ethical administrator. Assume responsibility; deal with people, sense of urgency, good listener, resourceful, self confident, teamwork


optimism, courage, fairness tempered by charity

not black or white, but shades of gray


grounded in puralism

individual is the best judge of self-interest; not expressed=not important

individual group linkage

interest group and political participation, group administrator linkage

Weberian model

hierarchical organized model with formal rules and regulations. power flows from the top down. decisions are technical in nature. rational unbiased decision-making.

decision clusters

budget, revenue & expenditure process, balance, implementation

budget process

how will the budget choices be made?

revenue process

how much income will be availabe and from where?

expenditure process

which programs will get what?


how will revenues and expenditures be balanced?


how will the budget be put into operations?

Scientific Management

Workload evenly shared between the workers and management with management performing the science and instruction and the workers performing the labor, each doing "the work for which is was best suited"

Frederick Taylor

began the era of modern management

case study six

how a city slowly drowned-chapter 8 in stillman

case study seven

the shooting at colombine high school-chapter 9 stillman

case study eight

torture and foreign policy- chapter 15 stillman

case study nine

death of a sky satellite program-chapter 12 stillman

case study ten

geroge tent and the last great days of the CIA-chapter 16 stillman

Resigned after falsely claiming that Iraq has weapons of massive destruction.

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