Navigation, Air and Space (NAVAIDS)


Terms in this set (...)

Airspace categories
Regulatory and non- regulatory
4 types of airspace
Controlled, uncontrolled, special use and other
airspace are dictated by...
Complexity or density of aircraft; nature of operations; level of safety; national and public interest
Controlled airspaces
Class A,B,C,D, and E airspaces
Requirements for IFR flight in controlled airspace
A. File an IFR flight plan
B. Receive an appropriate ATC clearance
Class A
From 18,000 ft MSL up to FL600 (60,000ft)
Class A covers...
48 contiguous states and Alaska and 12 NM off of the coast
Class B
From the surface to 10,000 MSL
Class B resembles...
An upside down wedding cake
ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate is what class?
Class B
Class C
From surface to 4,000 ft MSL (surface area- 5NM outer circle- 10NM no lower than 1200-4000 ft above airport elevation. outer area- 20NM
TOONS for class C
1. Tower
2. Outer area 20 NM
3. Over circle 10 NM 1200-4000
4. Number IFR Ops
5. Surface up to 4000 ft
STAIN for class C
1. Surface area 5NM
2. Two way radio
3. Approach
4. Individually tailored
5. No Certificate
REST for class C
1. Radar Beacon trans
2. Enroute/ low alt. Chart
3. Sectional charts
4. Terminal charts
Class D
Surface to 2,500 ft
Class D Extensions
2 miles or less- class D
More than 2 miles- class E
Class E
If not Class A,B,C, or D and is controlled
Six types of Class E
1. Surface area designed for an airport
2. Offshore airspace area
3. Federal airways
4. Transitions
5. Enroute domestic area
6. Extensions to a surface area
Class G
Uncontrolled airspace that is not designated at Class A,B,C,D,or E
Two fixed route systems for Air NAVAIDS
1. VOR and L/MF systems
2. Jet Route System
VOR and L/MF system
Designated from 1200 ft above the surface to up to but not including 18,000 ft MSL
VOR airways
Are depicted in BLUE on aeronautical charts and are 8NM wide, 4 miles each side of centerline; identified by "V" (Victor) followed by airway number
L/MF airways
Are predicted solely on L/MF navigational aids and are depicted in BROWN on aeronautical charts
Green, Red, East and West;
Blue, Amber, North and South
Jet Routes
System of jet routes established from 18,000 ft MSL to FL450; depicted in BLACK on enroute charts; Identified by a "J" (Jet) followed by airway number
Great Circles
a circle on the surface of a sphere whose center and radius are those of the sphere itself; largest circle that can be drawn on the sphere
Arc of a Great Circle
The shortest distance between 2 points on a sphere just as a straight line is the shortest distance between two points on a plane
Small Circles
Circle on the surface of the earth whose center and/or radius are not that of the sphere
Imaginary lines running from East to West around the earth's surface and measure North and South
Equator is considered...
O° latitude
Latitude will never exceed... degrees
Imaginary lines running from North and South around the earth's surface; connect North and South poles; measures East and West
Prime Meridian
Starting point for counting or measuring longitude; runs through Greenwich, England; referred to as either the Greenwich Meridian, the First Meridian, or Zero Meridian
Longitude is numbered...
From 0° at the Prime Meridian to 180° West longitude or 180° East longitude depending on the direction you are traveling
Longitude will never exceed
All lines of Longitude are...
Great circles
Position of one point in space relative to another without reference to the distance between them
Numerical system divides the horizon into clockwise 360° starting with...
North as 000°
East as 090°
South as 180°
West as 270°
Is the horizontal direction of TRAVEL
Is the horizontal direction that an aircraft is POINTED
Is the actual horizontal direction MADE by the aircraft
Magnetic Variation
The difference, in degrees, between true and magnetic North
Isogonic lines
Connect points of equal magnetic variations, labeled east or west of magnetic north
East Variation
East is least (Subtract)
West Variation
West is best (Add)
Magnetic Heading
Heading measured in reference to the magnetic North pole (magnetic North)
The angle of difference between true North and magnetic North
Agonic lines
Connect points of no magnetic variation
Compass heading
Defined as the heading of the aircraft read from a magnetic compass
Defined as the direction of a straight line between two points
True bearing
The line measured clockwise from true North
Conversion Formulas
TB - RB = TH
TB + TH = RB
TH (True heading)
RB (Relative bearing)
TB (True bearing)
Defined as the speed of an aircraft with relation to the air mass surrounding the aircraft
True airspeed (TAS)
Speed of an aircraft through a mass of air; used to compute ground speed
Ground Speed (GS)
Defined as the speed of the aircraft relative to the earth's surface
Air Mass affects on speed of aircraft
1. Tailwind increases ground speed
2. Headwind decreases ground speed
used by pilots to compute all estimated times of arrival
Lines of latitude (east to west)
Angular distance north and south of the equator measured in degrees
Lines of longitude (north and south)
Angular distance east and west of the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees
Basic unit of measurement on aeronautical charts
One degree is equal
60 nautical miles as measured along a great circle
Divides a degree into 60 Units
Longitudinal minute is equal to
The earth,using lines of longitude (Meridians), is divided into ...
24 time zones
Each time zone consists of ... degrees of longitude, measured... degrees on either side of every 15th Meridian
15; 7.5
Time measured with reference to the local Meridian of an observer
Local Mean Time (LMT)
LMT are used to...
Calculate sunrise, sunset, moonrise at various latitudes along the given meridian
Local Time Zones
Uses the LMT of it's central meridian and zoned according to are
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or "ZULU" time
Is the time zone zero which originates at the Prime Meridian; is used at the reference for computing time anywhere in the world
Time zones are designated by numbers... and from ...
0 to +12; 0 to -12
The 180th meridian is 7 1/2 degrees of ... and 7 1/2 degrees of...
(+12); (-12)
The 180th meridian is known as the ...
International Date Line
Crossing the international date line from the west to east makes you...
Go back a day
Crossing the international date line from East to west makes you...
Go ahead a day
Basic formulas for time conversions
UTC (Coordinated Universal Time)
LZT (local zone time)
ZD (zone designator)
TV Makes Dumb Children
TH+/- Var= MH
MH+/- Dev= CH
TH (True heading)
Var (variations)
MH (magnetic heading)
Dev (deviation)
CH (compass heading)
Statute mile is equal to
5,280 ft
Nautical mile is equal to
6,076 ft