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Lab quiz 5 bio 211 genetics
Terms in this set (37)
Nuclear division process that reduces the chromosomal number by half and results in the formation of four haploid cells; occurs only in reproductive organs
Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Tetrads and crossing over
During meiosis, little groups of four chromatids are formed called tetrads. Tetrad is structure formed by close association of homologous chromosomes during prophase of meiosis. Then an event called crossovers, also called chiasmata, form within each tetrad as the free ends of one maternal and one paternal chromatid wrap around each other at one or more points. Crossing over is exchange of chromosomal material between nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes.
a threadlike structural form of DNA in nucleus of cell
Each duplicated chromosome consists of two identical threads called sister chromatids
Pairs of chromosomes-one from the father and one from the mother-that look similar and carry genes for the same traits, but do not necessarily bring about the same expressions of those traits
n-the number of chromosomes in human gametes is 23, referred to as the haploid chromosomal number. When sperm and egg fuse, they form a fertilized egg that reestablishes the typical diploid chromosomal number of human cells-2n.
2n-The normal chromosome number in most body cells. In humans, the diploid chromosomal number is 46. double set of chromosomes.
Genes coding for the same trait and found at the same locus on homologous chromosomes. Like blue allele or brown allele for eye color; alternate forms of a gene that control the same trait
The process of sperm cell formation; involves meiosis. Meiotic cell division in the seminiferous tubules of the testes to produce four haploid sperm cells from a diploid spermatogonium
Process of ovum formation
The outermost tubule cells, which are in direct contact with the epithelial basal lamina, are stem cells called spermatogonia. The spermatogonia divide more or less continuously by mitosis and, until puberty, all their daughter cells become spermatogonia
Primary and secondary spermatocyte
The type B daughter cell gets pushed toward the lumen, where it becomes a primary spermatocyte (spermatogonia that move into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and begin meiosis) destined to produce four sperm. Each primary spermatocyte generated during the first phase undergoes meiosis I, forming two smaller haploid cells called secondary spermatocytes (product of Meiosis I, haploid set of double stranded chromosomes). primary are diploid, secondary are haploid.
Each spermatid has the correct chromosomal number for fertilization (n), but is nonmotile. It still must undergo a streamlining process called spermiogenesis, during which it elongates, sheds its excess cytoplasmic baggage, and forms a tail. Formation of sperm from a spermatid
Spermatid (flagellum, acrosome)
Product of Meiosis II, four haploid cells. The secondary spermatocytes continue on rapidly into meiosis II. Their daughter cells, called spermatids, are small round cells with spherical nuclei. A helmetlike acrosome adheres to the top of the nucleus, covers head of sperm. The long tail is a typical flagellum produced by one centriole near the nucleus.
Diploid reproductive cell that replicate mitotically producing primary oocyte while the female is still in vivo
Product of replicating oogonium; female is born with all the primary oocytes she will have; undergoes Meiosis I just before ovulation producing one secondary oocyte and one polar body; diploid cell
One of the two product of Meiosis I; haploid cell; Undergoes meiosis II producing one oocyte and 3 polar bodies
Immature female gamete; Product of Meiosis II, is fertilized by sperm to form a diploid zygote
smaller of the products of Meiosis I; haploid cell that disintegrates
Fusion of the sperm and egg nuclei; forms a zygote
Attachment of zygote to uterine wall
Transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to offspring
Science of heredity and the interaction of genes
Alleles producing the same phenotype results when genotype is homozygous dominant or heterozygous; one copy of an allele is sufficient for expression of a trait
Inheritance where the trait is recessive-homozygous recessive (rr) gives individual trait or disorder or disease; two copies of an allele are necessary for expressing a trait
A simple diagram that is used to figure out, for a single trait, the possible gene combinations that would result from the mating of parents of known genotypes. Grid to show potential offspring.
Chromosomes number 1 to 22; do not include sex chromosomes.
The chromosomes, x and y, that determine genetic sex; the 23rd pair of chromosomes.
tt; recessive alleles inherited from both parents. Two alleles controlling a trait are the same, a person is said to be homozygous. Allele that is masked is recessive. individual with two copies of recessive allele for trait
TT; dominant alleles inherited from both parents. The allele that masks the other is dominant allele. individual with 2 copies of dominant allele for a trait
When two alleles are different, it is heterozygous. Tt; dominant allele inherited from one parent, recessive allele inherited from other parent. individual with one copy of dominant allele and one copy of recessive allele for trait
In dominant-recessive inheritance, one allele variant completely masks the other. Some traits, however, exhibit incomplete dominance. In such instances, the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between those of homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive individuals. Incomplete dominance is uncommon in humans. neither allele for a trait is completely dominant
Sex linked inheritance (hemophilia and color blindness)
Inherited traits determined by genes on the sex chromosomes are said to be sex-linked.
Sex or germ cell. Mature sexual reproductive cell (sperm or egg). haploid cell resulting from meiosis.
Observable expression of the genotype. Physical characteristics.
One's genetic makeup or genes. TT, tt, Tt
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