Before writing. Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.
Invention of agriculture. 10,000 B.C.E in Middle East. Characteristics of civilizations started developing. Encouraged migration and increased population.
River Valley Civilizations
1st civilizations. Near major rivers = water supply for agriculture. Basic tools, writing, math, and political forms that would persist and spread. Began in Middle East, most in decline by 1000 B.C.E.
Mesopotamia (Middle East) - Tigris/Euphrates River valley. Started from scratch. Progressed from Sumerian accomplishments. Ex: cuneiform, organized city-states, astronomical sciences.
3000 B.C.E along Nile River. Durable and centralized institutions. Math achievements, impressive architectural structures, hieroglyphics.
8000 B.C.E - 600 B.C.E.
Indus Valley Civilization
2500 B.C.E. along Indus River. Some large cities like Harappa, which had houses with running water. Distinct alphabet and artistic forms. Completely destroyed by the Aryans. (Indo-Europeans)
Along Huang/Hwang He River. (Yangtze) Isolated. Advanced technology and elaborate intellectual life by 2000 B.C.E. 1500 B.C.E. - Shang Dynasty. Rulers are noted for managing construction of impressive tombs and palaces.