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Before writing.
Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.

Neolithic Revolution

Invention of agriculture.
10,000 B.C.E in Middle East.
Characteristics of civilizations started developing.
Encouraged migration and increased population.

River Valley Civilizations

1st civilizations.
Near major rivers = water supply for agriculture.
Basic tools, writing, math, and political forms that would persist and spread.
Began in Middle East, most in decline by 1000 B.C.E.


Mesopotamia (Middle East) - Tigris/Euphrates River valley.
Started from scratch.
Progressed from Sumerian accomplishments. Ex: cuneiform, organized city-states, astronomical sciences.

Egyptian Civilization

3000 B.C.E along Nile River.
Durable and centralized institutions.
Math achievements, impressive architectural structures, hieroglyphics.

Foundations Era

8000 B.C.E - 600 B.C.E.

Indus Valley Civilization

2500 B.C.E. along Indus River.
Some large cities like Harappa, which had houses with running water.
Distinct alphabet and artistic forms.
Completely destroyed by the Aryans. (Indo-Europeans)

Chinese Civilization

Along Huang/Hwang He River. (Yangtze)
Advanced technology and elaborate intellectual life by 2000 B.C.E.
1500 B.C.E. - Shang Dynasty. Rulers are noted for managing construction of impressive tombs and palaces.

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