53 terms

WHI SOL 6 Ancient Rome

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Italian Peninsula
peninsula protected by the sea and the Alps mountains in the central Mediterranean Sea basin
Alps
Rugged mountains that crown the north of Italy
Mediterranean Sea
Sea that separates Africa from Europe and is the source of sea-borne commerce for ancient Roman and Phoenician civilizations
Roman mythology
based on the Greek polytheistic religion, often seen in modern Western civilization metaphors, symbols, words and idealized images
Jupiter
Chief of Roman gods, God of the Sky
Juno
Wife of Jupiter, Goddess of Marriage and Childbirth
Apollo
Same name as in Greek mythology; God of the Sun, Music and Healing
Diana
Goddess of the Hunt
Minerva
Goddess of Wisdom
Venus
Goddess of Love and Beauty
Roman citizenship
Only males; no women or slaves, most non-Romans or aliens had no rights of citizenship
Social structure of the Roman Republic
Patricians, Plebeians, Slaves
Patricians
Powerful wealthy nobility who were few in number
Plebeians
Commoners who made up the majority of the population
Slavery
were captured due to the loss of a war with Rome; it was not race-based
Rights and responsibilities of citizens
Taxes and military service
Representative democracy
Type of Roman democracy where a representatives to pass laws in their stead
Assemblies
Legislative bodies that included plebeians
The Senate
Powerful legislative body made up of only wealthy patricians
Consuls
the highest level of office in the Roman Republic. Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term.
Twelve Tables
The codified laws of Rome
Punic Wars
Rome vs. Carthage which occurred between 264 and 146 BCE over trade in the Mediterranean Sea
Carthage
Wealthy trading port in North Africa originally settled by the Phoenicians
Hannibal
Famous Carthaginian general who surprised Rome by coming down to the Italian Peninsula through the Alps
Results of the Punic Wars
Destruction of Carthage, Roman victory, and expanded trade and wealth for Rome
Roman Empire
Conquered the whole Mediterranean Basin including North Africa, Asia, Europe, including Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean, and Western Europe including Gaul and the British Isles
Julius Caesar
last ruler of the Roman Republic who seed power and was assassinated by Roman senators in 44 B.C. on the Ides of March
First triumvirate
Ruling group of three made up of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey the Great, three powerful generals and senators in the Roman Republic
Augustus Caesar
Originally called Octavian, nephew and adopted sone of Julius Caesar, took power in 28 BCE after J. Caesars's death and a power struggle with Mark Anthony. He was the first emperor of the Roman Empire
Expansion of the Roman Empire
unified and enlarged using imperial authority and the military
Pax Romana
two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule
Economic impacts of Pax Romana
Established uniform system of money (a common coinage), guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads, promoted prosperity and stability
Social impacts of Pax Romana
Returned stability to social classes and increased emphasis on the family
Political impacts of Pax Romana
Created civil service and developed a uniform rule of law
Christianity
a monotheistic religion that had its roots in Judaism and started in the eastern part of the Roman Empire; conflicted with polytheistic Roman beliefs
Jesus of Nazareth
established the basis of Christianity and was proclaimed the Messiah
New Testament
contains the accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus as well as writings of early Christians
Life after Death
a main belief of Christians
Christian doctrines
set of beliefs established by early church councils
Spread of Christianity
Popular message with the people, carried by Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire
Constantine
First Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and made it legal
The Church
Source of moral authority as the Roman Empire declined in the West. Became the main unifying force of Western Europe
Pantheon
Temple built to honor all Roman gods
Colisseum
Arena in Rome, largest building in the world at the time it was built.
Forum
the center of Roman public life where people went to discuss politics, go to the market, and do business
Roman technology
The aqueduct, the Roman arch, the roads
Ptolemy
In 100 CE, created advances in earth sciences with the geocentric theory of the universe which says the stars, moon and sun revolve around the earth. Later disproved by Renaissance scientists.
Medical advances
Emphasis on public health with public baths, public water systems, and medical schools
Latin
The language of the Romans, influenced the Romance languages of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and French
Advances in law
Principles of Roman law are used in today's governments including the principle of "Innocent until proven guilty"
Decline of Western Roman Empire
Geographic size, cost of defense and administration , devaluation of Roman currency, delving of discipline in the Roman army, moral decay, civil inflicts, weak administration and invasions caused the decline.
Constantinople
Constantine move the Roman capital from Rome to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople
Byzantine Empire
Remaining eastern half of the Roman Empire after the fall of Rome in 476 A.D.
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