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NO other kind of atom can form the number and variety of molecules that _________ can because it can bond to 4 other atoms at the same time to make carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.


A ____________ is made up of a sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.


Lipids are different from other macromolecules because they:

dissolve easily in water

Glycogen, cellulose, and starch are all:


Which 2 kinds of molecules combine to form the cell membrane>

phospholipids and proteins

Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil are all:

nitrogen bases used to make nucleotides

Which part of a phospholipid molecule is NON-POLAR & HYDROPHOBIC?

the lipid "tails"

True or False: The 20 different polysaccharides used to make proteins differ in what is attached in their R group position.

FALSE. amino acids

True or False: Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide that makes plants sturdy.


True or False: One function of proteins is to provide insulation.

FALSE. Lipids

True or False: People with diabetes can't make hemoglobin to control their blood sugar.

FALSE. Insulin

____________ made by joining amino acid subunits in long chains with provide a wide variety of functions in cells.


____________ made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.

Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

_________ made from nucleotide subunits which store and carry information.

Nucleic acids

______________ Hydrophobic fats, oils, waxes, & steroids made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms in long chains or multiple rings.



1 sugar; examples are Glucose, Galactose, and Fructose


many sugars; examples are Glycogen, Cellulose, and Starch

Functions of carbohydrates

source of energy
supply carbon for synthesis

Functions of nucleic acids

carries information
carries amino acids


energy storage
protection of organs

functions of proteins

dissolve nutrients
provide energy
store energy
control chemical reactions
enzymatic catalyst


Protein hormone that tells animal cells to store blood glucose as glycogen


Double stranded nucleic acid made from nucleotides sub unites containing A, T, G, and C that stores genetic info in cells


protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body


membrane protein with carbohydrates attached that helps cells identify "self" and plays a role in blood types, organ transplants, and germ recognition


macromolecule with a polar glycerol/phosphate "head" and 2 non-polar hydrophobic "tails" used to make cell membranes


Single stranded nucleic acid made from nucleotide subunits containing A, U, C, and G which carries information from the DNA to the cell for protein synthesis


storage form of glucose used by plant cells


Storage form of glucose used by animal cells


structural polysaccharide made from glucose subunits that makes plant sturdy


Nucleotide subunit made from ribose sugar, adenine, and 3 phosphates which stores and transports ENERGY in cells

Reactants in a enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction are called:


Macromolecule that can act as enzymes are:


Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by:

decreasing the activation energy

Proteins (like enzymes) unwind or ________ when placed in extreme pH or temperature conditions.


Enzymes are:

unchanged during chemical reactions and reusable

caloric value

the energy stored in organic molecules


molecules composed of chains of amino acids

proteins have the same caloric value per gram as carbohydrates

Answer: proteins have the same caloric value per gram as carbohydrates

Lipids, including fats, are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

answer: Lipids, including fats, are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

What are functions of proteins in the human body?

basis for structures, transport substances, regulate processes, speed up chemical reactions, and control growth; building blocks

What are functions of carbohydrates in the human body?

energy source of fuel for fuel for cellular respiration; used to store energy for short periods of time; structural material in plants

What are functions of lipids in the human body?

energy when carbohydrates are scarce; long-term energy storage, cushioning of vital organs, and insulation for the body; also a major component of cell membranes; production of some vitamins and hormones

What is the caloric value of carbohydrates dependent on?

the number of carbon-hydrogen bonds

lipids have more carbon-hydrogen bonds than...


more carbon-hydrogen bonds=

greater caloric value.

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