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46 terms

Biochemistry Review

STUDY
PLAY
NO other kind of atom can form the number and variety of molecules that _________ can because it can bond to 4 other atoms at the same time to make carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
Carbon
A ____________ is made up of a sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.
Nucleotide
Lipids are different from other macromolecules because they:
dissolve easily in water
Glycogen, cellulose, and starch are all:
polysaccharides
Which 2 kinds of molecules combine to form the cell membrane>
phospholipids and proteins
Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil are all:
nitrogen bases used to make nucleotides
Which part of a phospholipid molecule is NON-POLAR & HYDROPHOBIC?
the lipid "tails"
True or False: The 20 different polysaccharides used to make proteins differ in what is attached in their R group position.
FALSE. amino acids
True or False: Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide that makes plants sturdy.
TRUE
True or False: One function of proteins is to provide insulation.
FALSE. Lipids
True or False: People with diabetes can't make hemoglobin to control their blood sugar.
FALSE. Insulin
____________ made by joining amino acid subunits in long chains with provide a wide variety of functions in cells.
Proteins
____________ made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
_________ made from nucleotide subunits which store and carry information.
Nucleic acids
______________ Hydrophobic fats, oils, waxes, & steroids made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms in long chains or multiple rings.
Lipids
MONOSACCHARIDE INFORMATION
1 sugar; examples are Glucose, Galactose, and Fructose
POLYSACCHARIDE INFORMATION
many sugars; examples are Glycogen, Cellulose, and Starch
Functions of carbohydrates
source of energy
supply carbon for synthesis
Functions of nucleic acids
carries information
carries amino acids
lipids
energy storage
protection of organs
insulation
functions of proteins
dissolve nutrients
provide energy
store energy
control chemical reactions
enzymatic catalyst
Insulin
Protein hormone that tells animal cells to store blood glucose as glycogen
DNA
Double stranded nucleic acid made from nucleotides sub unites containing A, T, G, and C that stores genetic info in cells
hemoglobin
protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body
glycoproteins
membrane protein with carbohydrates attached that helps cells identify "self" and plays a role in blood types, organ transplants, and germ recognition
lipids
macromolecule with a polar glycerol/phosphate "head" and 2 non-polar hydrophobic "tails" used to make cell membranes
RNA
Single stranded nucleic acid made from nucleotide subunits containing A, U, C, and G which carries information from the DNA to the cell for protein synthesis
starch
storage form of glucose used by plant cells
Glycogen
Storage form of glucose used by animal cells
proteins
structural polysaccharide made from glucose subunits that makes plant sturdy
ATP
Nucleotide subunit made from ribose sugar, adenine, and 3 phosphates which stores and transports ENERGY in cells
Reactants in a enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction are called:
substrates
Macromolecule that can act as enzymes are:
proteins
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by:
decreasing the activation energy
Proteins (like enzymes) unwind or ________ when placed in extreme pH or temperature conditions.
denature
Enzymes are:
unchanged during chemical reactions and reusable
caloric value
the energy stored in organic molecules
Proteins
molecules composed of chains of amino acids
proteins have the same caloric value per gram as carbohydrates
Answer: proteins have the same caloric value per gram as carbohydrates
Lipids, including fats, are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
answer: Lipids, including fats, are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What are functions of proteins in the human body?
basis for structures, transport substances, regulate processes, speed up chemical reactions, and control growth; building blocks
What are functions of carbohydrates in the human body?
energy source of fuel for fuel for cellular respiration; used to store energy for short periods of time; structural material in plants
What are functions of lipids in the human body?
energy when carbohydrates are scarce; long-term energy storage, cushioning of vital organs, and insulation for the body; also a major component of cell membranes; production of some vitamins and hormones
What is the caloric value of carbohydrates dependent on?
the number of carbon-hydrogen bonds
lipids have more carbon-hydrogen bonds than...
carbohydrates
more carbon-hydrogen bonds=
greater caloric value.