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Chapter 20

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European powers favored a civil war in the United States because war would weaken the United States' power in
the Western Hemisphere
President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as
cautious
Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter when
it was learned that Lincoln had ordered supplies sent to the fort.
Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until
the South attacked Fort Sumter.
States that joined the Confederacy after the firing on Fort Sumter included
Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.
In order to persuade the Border States to remain in the Union, President Lincoln declared
martial law where needed
Border States offered all of the following advantages
a large population; a good supply of horses and mules; valuable manufacturing capacity; and large navigable rivers.
Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without slavery revealed
the influence of the Border States on his policies
Border slave states that remained loyal to the Union included
Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware.
During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of presentday Oklahoma supported
the Confederacy
In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War
the Union waged war on them and herded them onto reservations.
To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to fight the invading Union army to
a draw.
the Civil War began, the South seemed to have the advantage of
more talented military leaders.
The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was
its economy
The North's greatest strength in the Civil War was
its economy
Northern advantages at the outset of the Civil War included
control of the seas; and more banks, factories, railroads, and people.
Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to
the South's rickety transportation system.
Northern soldiers eventually became known for their
discipline and determination
To find effective high-level commanders, the Union used
trial and error
A supposed asset for the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized to its real advantage was
intervention from Britain and France
. One reason that the British did not try to break the Union blockade of the South during the Civil War was that
they feared losing Northern grain shipments
The South believed that the British would come to its aid because Britain was dependent on
Southern cotton
During the Civil War, Britain and the United States were nearly provoked into war by the Trent affair, involving the removal of Southern diplomats from
a British ship
During the Civil War, diplomacy for the Union and the Confederacy was critical for
both
Confederate commerce-raiders such as the Alabama proved effective against
Union shipping.
Confederate commerce-raiders dealt a devastating blow to the Union's merchant marine and were almost all built in
Britain
The Confederacy's most effective commerce-raider was
the Alabama
Napoleon III's attempt to install Maximilian on the Mexican throne was a clear violation of
the Monroe Doctrine
France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico because
the United States threatened to send soldiers to force France to leave.
During the Civil War, relations between the Union and Canada were at times
very poor
The Southern cause was weakened by
the concept of states' rights that the Confederacy professed.
As leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis defied rather than led
public opinion
The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were less prostrating than those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North had a long-established and fully recognized
government
As president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power wielded by Abraham Lincoln because of
the South's emphasis on states' rights
To fill the army's demand for troops, the North relied mainly on
volunteers
The Union's establishment of the National Banking System was the first significant step toward
a unified banking network since 1836
During the Civil War, the Union launched a new
national banking system
As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy emerged
more prosperous than ever before.
To help pay for the Civil War, both the North and the South raised taxes, printed paper currency, and
sold bonds
The only major Northern industry that suffered economic reversal during the Civil War was
foreign shipping
During the Civil War, women in the North had new opportunities opened to them in
industry