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Chapter 21

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At the beginning of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln favored quick military action to show
the folly of secession
Lincoln hoped that a Union victory at Bull Run would lead to
the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond.
The South's victory at Bull Run in 1861 reduced enlistments in
the South's army
In the Civil War, the South won the battle of
Bull Run
Union's defeat in battle at Bull Run in 1861 was better than a victory because
the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war.
George B. McClellan is best described as
cautios
After assuming command of the Army of the Potomac, General George McClellan made the mistake of
consistently believing that the enemy outnumbered him
As a result of the Union loss in the Peninsula Campaign, Lincoln began to draft the
Emancipation Proclamation
As a result of the Confederate victory in the Peninsula Campaign, the Union turned to a strategy of
total war
Britain did not protest too loudly against the Union naval blockade of the Confederacy because
Britain might want to use a similar blockade in a future war
The most alarming Confederate threat to the Union blockade came from
the ironclad Merrimack.
The Confederate blockade runner, the Merrimack, was destroyed by
Confederate soldiers.
After halting Lee's troops at Antietam, General George McClellan was removed from
His field command
One of the key developments enabling the Union to stop the Confederate thrust into the North at Antietam was
the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee's battle plans
The two major battles of the Civil War fought on Union soil were
Gettysburg and Antietam.
The Battle of Antietam was particularly critical because it probably prevented intervention by Britain and France on behalf of
the Confederacy
The North's "victory" at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to issue the
Emancipation Proclamation.
Slavery was legally abolished in the United States by
the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
The Emancipation Proclamation had the effect of strengthening the moral cause and diplomatic position of
the Union
When it was issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation declared free only those slaves in states still in rebellion against
the United States
During the Civil War blacks were enlisted by the Union army only after
the Emancipation Proclamation was issued.
African-Americans who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War served bravely and
suffered extremely heavy casualties
The Confederacy enlisted slaves into their army
a month before the war ended
Robert E. Lee decided to invade the North through Pennsylvania in order to deliver a decisive blow that would strengthen
the Northern peace movement
The Battle of Gettysburg was significant because
Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.
One consequence of General William T. Sherman's style of warfare was
a shorter war that saved lives.
The group in the North most dangerous to the Union cause was
the Northern Peace Democrats.
L. Vallandigham, a Southern sympathizer and vocal opponent of the war, was derisively labeled a
Copperhead
In the election of 1864, the Republicans joined with the prowar Democrats and founded the
Union party
In the 1864 election, Abraham Lincoln's running mate was
Andrew Johnson
In the l864 election, the Democratic Party nominated George McClellan to oppose
Lincoln's reelection
Lincoln's victory in the election of 1864 was aided by Union military victories and backing from
Union soldiers
Union army's victory in the capture of Atlanta was probably critical
to Lincoln's reelection in 1864.
General Ulysses S. Grant's basic strategy in the Civil War involved assailing the enemy's armies
simultaneously and directly
. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln was
a calamity for the South
The supreme test of American democracy in the nineteenth century was
the Civil War
Among the casualties of the Civil War were black slavery; extreme states' rights; and
over a million men dead or wounded.