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branch of psychology that studies the effect social variables on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions, & motives; also studies group activities, dynamics, & interactions
social-cognition approach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate casual explanations
theory that suggests that people attribute a behavior to a causal factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occurs, but was absent when it didn't occur
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
dual tendency of observers to underestimate the impact of situational factors & to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors (blame or credit people) on a person's behavior
attributional bias which people tend to take credit for their successes & deny responsibility for their failures
prediction made about some human behavior or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is expected
socially pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group
expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable & appropriate attitudes & behaviors
tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, & values of other members of a reference group
group effects that arise from individuals' desire to be correct & right & to understand how best to act in a given situation
group effects that arise from individuals' desire to be liked, accepted, & approved of by others
convergence of the expectations of a group of individuals into a common perspective as they talk & carry out activities together
tendency for groups to make decisions that more extreme than the decisions that would be made by the members acting alone
tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undesirable input so that consensus may be reached, especially if it is in line with the leader's viewpoint
learned, relatively stable tendency to respond to people, concepts, & events in an evaluative way
elaboration likelihood model
theory of persuasion that defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognition processes to elaborate upon a persuasive message
state of conflict someone experiences after making a decision, taking an action, or being exposed to information that is contrary to prior beliefs, feelings or values
idea that people observe themselves to figure out the reasons they act as as they do; people infer what their internal states are by perceiving how they are acting in a given situation
expectations that favors will be returned: if someone doe something for another person, that person should do something in return
learned attitude toward a target object, involving dislike or fears, negative beliefs, & behavioral intention to avoid, control, dominate, or eliminate the target object
process by which people organize the social environment by categorizing themselves & others into groups
generalization about a group of people in which the same characteristics are assigned to all members of a group
prediction that contact between groups will reduce prejudice only if the contact includes features such as cooperation toward shared goals
prosocial behavior a person carries out without considering his or her own safety or interests
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