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33 terms

Chapter 16

social psychology
branch of psychology that studies the effect social variables on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions, & motives; also studies group activities, dynamics, & interactions
social cognition
process by which people select, interpret, & remember social information
social perception
process by which people understand & categorize the behaviors of others
attribution theory
social-cognition approach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate casual explanations
covariation model
theory that suggests that people attribute a behavior to a causal factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occurs, but was absent when it didn't occur
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
dual tendency of observers to underestimate the impact of situational factors & to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors (blame or credit people) on a person's behavior
self-serving bias
attributional bias which people tend to take credit for their successes & deny responsibility for their failures
self-fulling prophecy
prediction made about some human behavior or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is expected
social role
socially pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group
behavioral guideline for acting in a certain way in a certain situation
social norm
expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable & appropriate attitudes & behaviors
tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, & values of other members of a reference group
informational influence
group effects that arise from individuals' desire to be correct & right & to understand how best to act in a given situation
normative influence
group effects that arise from individuals' desire to be liked, accepted, & approved of by others
norm crystallization
convergence of the expectations of a group of individuals into a common perspective as they talk & carry out activities together
group polarization
tendency for groups to make decisions that more extreme than the decisions that would be made by the members acting alone
tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undesirable input so that consensus may be reached, especially if it is in line with the leader's viewpoint
learned, relatively stable tendency to respond to people, concepts, & events in an evaluative way
deliberate efforts to change attitudes
elaboration likelihood model
theory of persuasion that defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognition processes to elaborate upon a persuasive message
cognition dissonance
state of conflict someone experiences after making a decision, taking an action, or being exposed to information that is contrary to prior beliefs, feelings or values
self-perception theory
idea that people observe themselves to figure out the reasons they act as as they do; people infer what their internal states are by perceiving how they are acting in a given situation
change in behavior consistent with a direct request
reciprocity norm
expectations that favors will be returned: if someone doe something for another person, that person should do something in return
learned attitude toward a target object, involving dislike or fears, negative beliefs, & behavioral intention to avoid, control, dominate, or eliminate the target object
social categorization
process by which people organize the social environment by categorizing themselves & others into groups
generalization about a group of people in which the same characteristics are assigned to all members of a group
contact hypothesis
prediction that contact between groups will reduce prejudice only if the contact includes features such as cooperation toward shared goals
behaviors that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual
prosocial behavior
behavior that is carried out with the goal of helping other people
prosocial behavior a person carries out without considering his or her own safety or interests
bystander interventions
willingness to assist a person in need of help
diffusion of responsibility
in emergency situations, the larger the number of bystanders, the less responsibility any one of the bystanders feels to help