Two utterances where the first utterance gets an expected response (e.g. greeting/greeting; question/answer).
Non-verbal utterance to show attention or agreement. E.g.: Mmm, yeah, OK
Pointers that refer the listener backwards, forwards, or outside a text. Pointing words in a perceptual, temporal or spatial dimension. E.g. words like this, that, here, there.
Signal shift in conversation and topic areas. Can also introduce a counter argument. E.g.: OK, right, so, but
Phrases which support interaction but do not generally add any specific semantic meaning to the message. E.g.: you know, I mean, you see, well, yeah, like, innit.
Omission of words for economical purposes, as appropriate to informal contexts or to avoid awkward repetition. E.g.: Just seen Jack (ellipsis: I've); Tonight 8pm (ellipsis: I'll meet you at...)
A speaker will start to speak, pause then recommence. E.g.: It began er Arsenal kicked off the second half (false start it began). A repair returns to correct a previously stated phrase or sentence. E.g.: He sorry she broke the vase (repair she from he)
Non-verbal sounds, can act like pauses either naturally or to give a speaker thinking time. May also signal speaker uncertainty.
A strategy used to avoid being direct. E.g.: Kind of, sort of, maybe, perhaps, possibly and modal verbs such as will, could, might
Non-verbal occurrences. E.g.: (Micro) Pauses, hesitations and repetitions that occur in spontaneous speech
Features such as tone of voice, volume, pitch etc. which affect how a message is received.
A return to a previous topic of conversation, essentially a type of discourse marker. E.g.: Anyway, coming back to our original discussion.
A question converted from a statement by an appended interrogative formula. E.g.: You did really well didn't you?; It was tomorrow wasn't it?
Similar to hedging, deliberately non-committal expression in informal contexts. E.g.: Anything, something, thing