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Psychology (Seventh edition) by David G. Myers Chapter 7 States of Consciousness


our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Biological Rhythms

periodic physiological fluctuations

Circadian Rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

REM Sleep

rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

Alpha Waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state


periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation


a false sensory perception that seems to be real but for which there is not an actual external stimulus

Delta Waves

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep


recurring problems in falling or staying asleep


a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times

Sleep Apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

Night Terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered


a series of mental images and emotions occurring during sleep

Manifest Content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream

Latent Content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream

REM Rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)


a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

Post Hypnotic Amnesia

supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis, induced by the hypnotist's suggestion.

Post Hypnotic Suggestion

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized, used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.


a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

Hidden Observer

Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis

Psychoactive Drug

a drug that can produce mood changes and distorted perceptions


the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect


the discomfort and distress following the discontinuation of the use of an addictive drug

Physical Dependence

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

Psychological Dependence

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions


drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions (ex. alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates)


drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions


psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input


drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment


opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.


drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes


A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.


a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid


the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

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