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During a crisis, clans cooperated as tribes.
Individual survival depended upon clan loyalty.
Wealth and status varied within clans.
Leaders/shaykhs - elected by councils, usually wealthy men.
Northwest of Mecca.
Asked Muhammad to resolve its intergroup differences.
Hijra - Muhammad's flight to Medina.
622 - Muslim calendar begins.
1st hereditary dynasty of the Muslim caliphs.
Damascus = capital.
Empire extended from Spain to India.
Overthrown by Abbasid caliphate.
Causes For Early Expansion
Weakness of adversaries.
Desire for booty.
A sense of a common cause/united strength.
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in 750.
Baghdad = capital.
Reasons for decline: difficulty in moving armies across the empire, disputes over succession, retention of rural identities by population, difficulty of getting local administrators to obey.
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