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12 terms

POST CLASSICAL: ISLAM

STUDY
PLAY
Bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian Peninsula.
Herded camels and goats.
Social Organization
During a crisis, clans cooperated as tribes.
Individual survival depended upon clan loyalty.
Wealth and status varied within clans.
Leaders/shaykhs - elected by councils, usually wealthy men.
Mecca
Arabian commercial center.
Dominated by Quraysh.
Home of Muhammad.
Future center of Islam.
Medina
Northwest of Mecca.
Asked Muhammad to resolve its intergroup differences.
Hijra - Muhammad's flight to Medina.
622 - Muslim calendar begins.
Umayyads
1st hereditary dynasty of the Muslim caliphs.
Damascus = capital.
Empire extended from Spain to India.
Overthrown by Abbasid caliphate.
Causes For Early Expansion
Weakness of adversaries.
Desire for booty.
A sense of a common cause/united strength.
Ayans
Rural landholding elite.
Emerged in early Abbasid rule.
Sufism
Emphasized mysticism and charismatic worship.
Sunnis
Followers of the majority interpretation of Islam
Umayyads.
Shi'a/Shi'ites
Followers of Ali's interpretation of Islam.
Abbasids
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads in 750.
Baghdad = capital.
Reasons for decline: difficulty in moving armies across the empire, disputes over succession, retention of rural identities by population, difficulty of getting local administrators to obey.
Islam
"Submission."
Stressed egalitarianism of believers.